• S S Singh

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Harmonic analysis of summer mean wind at 200 mbar level during contrasting monsoon years over India

      S M Bawiskar S T Awade S S Singh

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      Summer (June–August) mean zonal and meridional wind components at 200 mbar level are subjected to harmonic analysis for the years 1970, 1971, 1972 and 1979. It is found that the small scale disturbances are intense during normal monsoon years. The westerlies in the belt 10°S to 30°S are stronger during drought years. During normal monsoon years (1970, 1971) the northward transport of westerly momentum by wave number 1 at 19.6°N is large as compared to drought years (1972, 1979). The transport of westerly momentum by standing eddies is northward for all the years between 5°S and 28.7°N but large during the normal monsoon years.

    • Upper and lower tropospheric energetics of standing and transient eddies in wave number domain during summer monsoon of 1991

      S M Bawiskar M D Chipade D K Paul S S Singh

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      Kinetic energy exchange equations (Saltzman 1957) in wave number domain are partitioned into standing, transient and standing-transient components following Murakami (1978, 1981). These components are computed for the 1991 summer monsoon using dailyu andv grid point data at 2.5° latitude-longitude interval between the equator and 40°N at 200 hPa and 850 hPa levels for the period June through August. The data are obtained from NCMRWF, New Delhi.

      The study shows that at 200 hPa wave number 1 over Region 3 (30°N to 40°N), wave number 2 over Region 2 (15°N to 30°N) and wave number 3 over Region 1 (equator to 15°N) dominate the spectrum of transport of momentum and wave to zonal mean flow interaction. Wave number 1 over Region 1 and Region 3 and wave number 2 over Region 2 are the major sources of kinetic energy to other waves via wave-to-wave interaction. At 850 hPa wave number 1 over Region 3 has maximum contribution in the spectrum of transport of momentum and kinetic energy and more than 90% of its contribution is from the standing component. This indicates that standing wave number 1 over Region 3 plays a very important role in the dynamics of monsoon circulation of the lower troposphere.

      The study further shows that although the circulation patterns at 200 hPa and 850 hPa levels are opposite in character, a number of energy processes exhibit a similar character at these levels. For example, (i) transport of momentum by most of the waves is northward, (ii) small scale eddies intensify northward, (iii) eddies are sources of kinetic energy to zonal mean flow over Region 1 and (iv) standing eddies are sources of kinetic energy to transient eddies. Besides the above similarities some contrasting energy processes are also observed. Over Region 2 and Region 3 standing and transient eddies are sources of kinetic energy to zonal mean flow at 200 hPa, while at 850 hPa the direction of exchange of kinetic energy is opposite i.e. zonal mean flow is a source of kinetic energy to standing as well as transient eddies. L(n) interaction indicates that at 200 hPa waves over R2 maintain waves over R1, while at 850 hPa waves over R1 maintain waves over R2.

      It has been found that the north-south gradient of zonal mean of zonal wind is the deciding factor of wave to zonal mean flow interaction.

    • Intra-seasonal variations of kinetic energy of lower tropospheric zonal waves during northern summer monsoon

      S M Bawiskar M D Chipade S S Singh

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      Space spectral analysis of zonal (u) and meridional (v) components of wind and time spectral analysis of kinetic energy of zonal waves at 850 hPa during monsoon 1991 (1st June 1991 to 31st August 1991) for the global belt between equator and 40°N are investigated. Space spectral analysis shows that long waves (wavenumbers 1 and 2) dominate the energetics of Region 1 (equator to 20°N) while over Region 2 (20°N to 40°N) the kinetic energy of short waves (wavenumbers 3 to 10) is more than kinetic energy of long waves. It has been found that kinetic energy of long waves is dominated by zonal component while both (zonal and meridional) the components of wind have almost equal contribution in the kinetic energy of short waves.

      Temporal variations of kinetic energy of wavenumber 2 over Region 1 and Region 2 are almost identical. The correlation matrix of different time series shows that (i) wavenumber 2 over Regions 1 and 2 might have the same energy source and (ii) there is a possibility of an exchange of kinetic energy between wavenumber 1 over Region 1 and short waves over Region 2. Wave to wave interactions indicate that short waves over Region 2 are the common source of kinetic energy to wavenumber 2 over Regions 1 and 2 and wavenumber 1 over Region 1. Time spectral analysis of kinetic energy of zonal waves indicates that wavenumber 1 is dominated by 30–45 day and bi-weekly oscillations while short waves are dominated by weekly and bi-weekly oscillations.

      The correlation matrix, wave to wave interaction and time spectral analysis together suggest that short period oscillations of kinetic energy of wavenumber 1 might be one of the factors causing dominant weekly (5–9 day) and bi-weekly (10–18 day) oscillations in the kinetic energy of short waves.

    • Impact of modified physics in limited area model forecasts

      J Sanjay S S Singh

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      A number of physical factors have been introduced to improve limited area model forecasts. The factors include land surface fluxes, shallow convection and radiation. The model including these additional physical factors (modified physics) is run for five cases of monsoon depression which made landfall over the Indian coast, and the results are compared with those of the control run. The forecasts are verified by computing the root mean square and mean errors. The differences in these skill scores between the two model runs are tested for their statistical significance. It is found that the modified physics has a statistically significant effect on the model skill with the maximum impact on the mean sea level pressure and the temperature.

      Detailed analyses of mean sea level pressure, wind, rainfall and temperature further confirm that the modified physics has maximum impact on mean sea level pressure and temperature and marginal impact on wind and rainfall. Furthermore, analyses of some model parameters related to physics at a grid point for one case of depression were done. The results show that the inclusion of the land surface physics, shallow convection and radiative processes have produced a better precipitation forecast over the grid point.

    • Momentum transport of wave zero during March: A possible predictor for the Indian summer monsoon

      S M Bawiskar V R Mujumdar S S Singh

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      Analysis of monthly momentum transport of zonal waves at 850 hPa for the period 1979 to 1993, between 30°S and 30°N for January to April, using zonal (𝑢) and meridional (𝜐) components of wind taken from the ECMWF reanalysis field, shows a positive correlation (.1% level of significance) between the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (June through September) and the momentum transport of wave zero TM(0) over latitudinal belt between 25°S and 5°N (LB) during March. Northward (Southward) TM(0) observed in March over LB subsequently leads to a good (drought) monsoon season over India which is found to be true even when the year is marked with the El- Nino event. Similarly a strong westerly zone in the Indian Ocean during March, indicates a good monsoon season for the country, even if the year is marked with El-Nino. The study thus suggests two predictors, TM(0) over LB and the strength of westerly zone in the Indian Ocean during March.

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