S S Rai
Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 105 Issue 4 December 1996 pp 431-439
The deep crustal structure of eastern Dharwar craton has been investigated through τ
Volume 105 Issue 4 December 1996 pp 441-450
Earthquake hypocenters and travel time residuals have been analysed to constrain the geometry and physical state of the subducted Indian plate in the Indo-Burmese convergence zone. A critical analysis of earthquake hypocenters reveals the existence of a non-uniform Benioff zone, progressively shortening from north to south. The deepest level of seismicity is observed beneath the Naga hills (160 km) followed by that under the Chin hills (120 km) and Arakan-Yoma ranges (80 km). The region seems to be devoid of moderate sized shallow (< 40 km) earthquakes. Differential travel time residuals from pairs of shallow and intermediate depth earthquakes recorded at teleseismic distances show significantly faster travel time (up to l.2s) in the north-northeast and south-southwest azimuths, whilst slower arrivals (1.2 to 1.5 s) are recorded in the transverse direction. This observation points to the presence of a high velocity slab possibly linked to the subduction of the Indian oceanic lithosphere.
Volume 108 Issue 1 March 1999 pp 1-14
The cause for prolific seismicity in the Koyna region is a geological enigma. Attempts have been made to link occurrence of these earthquakes with tectonic strain as well as the nearby reservoirs. With a view to providing reliable seismological database for studying the earth structure and the earthquake process in the Koyna region, a state of the art digital seismic network was deployed for twenty months during 1996–97. We present preliminary results from this experiment covering an area of 60 × 80 km2 with twenty seismic stations. Hypocentral locations of more than 400 earthquakes confined to 11×25 km2 reveal fragmentation in the seismicity pattern — a NE — SW segment has a dip towards NW at approximately 45°, whilst the other two segments show a near vertical trend. These seismic segments have a close linkage with the Western Ghat escarpment and the Warna fault. Ninety per cent of the seismicity is confined within the depth range of 3–10 km. The depth distribution of earthquakes delimits the seismogenic zone with its base at 10 km indicating a transition from an unstable to stable frictional sliding regime. The lack of shallow seismicity between 0 and 3 km indicates a mature fault system with well-developed gouge zones, which inhibit shallow earthquake nucleation. Local earthquake travel time inversion for P- and S-waves show ≈ 2% higher velocity in the seismogenic crust (0–10 km) beneath the epicentral tract relative to a lower velocity (2–3%) in the adjoining region. The high P- and S-wave velocity in the seismogenic crust argues against the presence of high pressure fluid zones and suggests its possible linkage with denser lithology. The zone of high velocity has been traced to deeper depths (≈ 70 km) through teleseismic tomography. The results reveal segmented and matured seismogenic fault systems in the Koyna region where seismicity is possibly controlled by strain build up due to competent lithology in the seismic zone with a deep crustal root.
Volume 108 Issue 4 December 1999 pp 297-304
Pn velocity has been computed across the NE India and Moho geometry constrained, using regional earthquake travel times recorded by a network of 30 seismological stations operated during February-May 1993. Using an appropriate velocity model and the arrival times at the network stations, preliminary hypocentres of 16 regional earthquakes provided by NEIC were also improved. The average Pn wave velocity in NE India has been found to be 8.5 ±0.2 km/s. It varies from 8.3 to 8.5 km/s beneath the Shillong Plateau, Mikhir hills and Assam valley, which is significantly higher than those in other parts of India. The crustal thickness in NE India is also high, varying from 45–49 km under the Shillong plateau and the adjoining region to 55–65 km in the convergence zone. The presence of a thick crust and high Pn velocity suggests that the lithosphere in NE India is colder, as also indicated by the observed deeper level (45-51 km) seismicity of the region.
Volume 122 Issue 6 December 2013 pp 1435-1453
We present here the most comprehensive study of the thickness and composition ($Vp/Vs$ ratio) of the South India Precambrian crust and the nature of shallower mantle inferred from analysis of teleseismic receiver functions from 70 broad-band seismic stations operated as a part of the India Deep Earth Imaging Experiment (INDEX). South India could be broadly divided into regions with thin crust (32–38 km) and thick crust (38–54 km). Thin crust domains include the East Dharwar Craton (EDC), Cuddapah basin and Madurai/Kerala Khondalite Block. The thicker crust domain includes the Western Dharwar Craton (WDC) and northern part of Southern Granulite Terrain. The WDC shows progressive increase in thickness from 38 km in north to 46–54 km in south, compared to an almost flat Moho beneath the EDC. Compositionally, most of the crustal domains are felsic to intermediate ($Vp/Vs$ ∼ 1.69–1.75) except the mid Archean block in the southern WDC where it is mafic ($Vp/Vs$ < 1.81). Considering erosion depth in the WDC, we argue for Himalaya like ∼70 km thick crust beneath it during the Archean. Variation in crustal thickness does not have a first-order influence on regional topography in South India and suggests significant role for the crustal composition. We also present evidence of mid-lithospheric low velocity at ∼85–100 km beneath South India.
Volume 129, 2020
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