• S S C Shenoi

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Diurnal and semidiurnal tidal currents in the deep mid-Arabian Sea

      S S C Shenoi A D Gouveia S R Shetye

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      Current meter records from two depths, approximately 1000 and 3000 m, at three moorings in the deep mid-Arabian Sea were used to study tidal components. Tidal ellipses for the semi-diurnal (M2, S2 and K2) and the diurnal (K1, and P1) tidal constituents have been determined using the currents recorded at hourly intervals during May 1986–May 1987. The clockwise rotating M2 tidal currents were the strongest. The maximum horizontal velocities due to M2,2 and K1 tides were 2.2 cm/s, l.0cm/s and 0.89 cm/s respectively. The amplitudes of the other two constituents (P1, and K2) were much smaller. The barotropic M2 ellipses have been estimated by averaging the M2 tidal currents at the upper and lower levels. Although the amplitudes of computed ellipses are lower than those that have been predicted using numerical models of global tidal model, their orientations are the same.

    • Circulation and water masses of the Arabian Sea

      S R Shetye A D Gouveia S S C Shenoi

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      The dynamics and thermodynamics of the surface layer of the Arabian Sea, north of about 10N, are dominated by the monsoon-related annual cycle of air-sea fluxes of momentum and heat. The currents in open-sea regime of this layer can be largely accounted for by Ekman drift and the thermal field is dominated by local heat fluxes. The geostrophic currents in open-sea subsurface regime also show a seasonal cycle and there is some evidence that signatures of this cycle appear as deep as 1000 m. The forcing due to Ekman suction is an important mechanism for the geostrophic currents in the central and western parts of the Sea. Recent studies suggest that the eastern part is strongly influenced by the Rossby waves radiated by the Kelvin waves propagating along the west coast of India.

      The circulation in the coastal region off Oman is driven mainly by local winds and there is no remotely driven western boundary current. Local wind-driving is also important to the coastal circulation off western India during the southwest monsoon but not during the northeast monsoon when a strong (approximately 7 × 106m3/sec) current moves poleward against weak winds. This current is driven by a pressure gradient which forms along this coast during the northeast monsoon due to either thermohaline-forcing or due to the arrival of Kelvin waves from the Bay of Bengal.

      The present speculation about flow of bottom water (deeper than about 3500 m) in the Arabian Sea is that it moves northward and upwells into the layer of North Indian Deep Water (approximately 1500–3500m). It is further speculated that the flow in this layer consists of a poleward western boundary current and a weak equatorward flow in the interior. It is not known if there is an annual cycle associated with the deep and the bottom water circulation.

    • Seasonal cycle of hydrography in the Bab el Mandab region, southern Red Sea

      M A Al Saafani S S C Shenoi

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      The seasonal cycle of temperature—salinity variations in the Bab el Mandab region (southern Red Sea) is described using CTD data collected during four cruises spread over the period May 1995—August 1997. A two layer system exists during early summer, winter and spring while a three layer system exists during summer. During summer, a large amount of the Gulf of Aden water intrudes into the Bab el Mandab region; up to the northern limit (14.5‡N). The quantity of Red Sea water that flows into the Gulf of Aden is maximum during the winter and minimum during the summer

    • Hydrography of the eastern Arabian Sea during summer monsoon 2002

      D Shankar S S C Shenoi R K Nayak P N Vinayachandran G Nampoothiri A M Almeida G S Michael M R Ramesh Kumar D Sundar O P Sreejith

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      Hydrographic observations in the eastern Arabian Sea (EAS) during summer monsoon 2002 (during the first phase of the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX)) include two approximately fortnight-long CTD time series. A barrier layer was observed occasionally during the two time series. These ephemeral barrier layers were caused byin situ rainfall, and by advection of low-salinity (high-salinity) waters at the surface (below the surface mixed layer). These barrier layers were advected away from the source region by the West India Coastal Current and had no discernible effect on the sea surface temperature. The three high-salinity water masses, the Arabian Sea High Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW), and the Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum also exhibited intermittency: they appeared and disappeared during the time series. The concentration of the ASHSW, PGW, and RSW decreased equatorward, and that of the RSW also decreased offshore. The observations suggest that the RSW is advected equatorward along the continental slope off the Indian west coast.

    • Hydrography and water masses in the southeastern Arabian Sea during March–June 2003

      S S C Shenoi D Shankar G S Michael J Kurian K K Varma M R Ramesh Kumar A M Almeida A S Unnikrishnan W Fernandes N Barreto C Gnanaseelan R Mathew K V Praju V Mahale

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      This paper describes the hydrographic observations in the southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during two cruises carried out in March–June 2003 as part of the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment. The surface hydrography during March–April was dominated by the intrusion of low-salinity waters from the south; during May–June, the low-salinity waters were beginning to be replaced by the highsalinity waters from the north. There was considerable mixing at the bottom of the surface mixed layer, leading to interleaving of low-salinity and high-salinity layers. The flow paths constructed following the spatial patterns of salinity along the sections mimic those inferred from numerical models. Time-series measurements showed the presence of Persian Gulf and Red Sea Waters in the SEAS to be intermittent during both cruises: they appeared and disappeared during both the fortnight-long time series.

    • On the diurnal ranges of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the north Indian Ocean

      S S C Shenoi N Nasnodkar G Rajesh K Jossia Joseph I Suresh A M Almeida

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      This paper describes the variability in the diurnal range of SST in the north Indian Ocean using in situ measurements and tests the suitability of simple regression models in estimating the diurnal range.SST measurements obtained from 1556 drifting and 25 moored buoys were used to determine the diurnal range of SSTs.The magnitude of diurnal range of SST was highest in spring and lowest in summer monsoon.Except in spring,nearly 75 –80%of the observations reported diurnal range below 0.5°C.The distributions of the magnitudes of diurnal warming across the three basins of north Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea,Bay of Bengal and Equatorial Indian Ocean)were similar except for the differences between the Arabian Sea and the other two basins during November-February (winter monsoon)and May.The magnitude of diurnal warming that depended on the location of temperature sensor below the water level varied with seasons.In spring,the magnitude of diurnal warming diminished drastically with the increase in the depth of temperature sensor.The diurnal range estimated using the drifting buoy data was higher than the diurnal range estimated using moored buoys fitted with temperature sensors at greater depths.

      A simple regression model based on the peak solar radiation and average wind speed was good enough to estimate the diurnal range of SST at ∼1.0 m in the north Indian Ocean during most of the seasons except under low wind-high solar radiation conditions that occur mostly during spring. The additional information on the rate of precipitation is found to be redundant for the estimation of the magnitude of diurnal warming at those depths.

    • A new atlas of temperature and salinity for the North Indian Ocean

      A Chatterjee D Shankar S S C Shenoi G V Reddy G S Michael M Ravichandran V V Gopalkrishna E P Rama Rao T V S Udaya Bhaskar V N Sanjeevan

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      The most used temperature and salinity climatology for the world ocean, including the Indian Ocean, is the World Ocean Atlas (WOA) (Antonov et al 2006, 2010; Locarnini et al 2006, 2010) because of the vast amount of data used in its preparation. The WOA climatology does not, however, include all the available hydrographic data from the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), leading to the potential for improvement if the data from this region are included to prepare a new climatology. We use all the data that went into the preparation of the WOA (Antonov et al 2010; Locarnini et al 2010), but add considerable data from Indian sources, to prepare new annual, seasonal, and monthly climatologies of temperature and salinity for the Indian Ocean. The addition of data improves the climatology considerably in the Indian EEZ, the differences between the new North Indian Ocean Atlas (NIOA) and WOA being most significant in the Bay of Bengal, where the patchiness seen in WOA, an artifact of the sparsity of data, was eliminated in NIOA. The significance of the new climatology is that it presents a more stable climatological value for the temperature and salinity fields in the Indian EEZ.

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