• S R Nayak

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Retrieval of sea surface velocities using sequential Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) data

      J S Prasad A S Rajawat Yaswant Pradhan O S Chauhan S R Nayak

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      The Indian remote sensing satellite, IRS-P4 (Oceansat-I) launched on May 26th, 1999 carried two sensors on board, i.e., the Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and the Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) dedicated for oceanographic research. Sequential data of IRS-P4 OCM has been analysed over parts of both east and west coast of India and a methodology to retrieve sea surface current velocities has been applied. The method is based on matching suspended sediment dispersion patterns, in sequential two time lapsed images. The pattern matching is performed on a pair of atmospherically corrected and geo-referenced sequential images by Maximum Cross-Correlation (MCC) technique. The MCC technique involves computing matrices of cross-correlation coefficients and identifying correlation peaks. The movement of the pattern can be calculated knowing the displacement of windows required to match patterns in successive images. The technique provides actual flow during a specified period by integrating both tidal and wind influences. The current velocities retrieved were compared with synchronous data collected along the east coast during the GSI cruise ST-133 of R.V. Samudra Kaustubh in January 2000. The current data were measured using the ocean current meter supplied by the Environmental Measurement and CONtrol (EMCON), Kochi available with the Geological Survey of India, Marine Wing. This current meter can measure direction and magnitude with an accuracy of ±5‡ and 2% respectively. The measurement accuracies with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.99, for both magnitude (cm.s-1) and direction (deg.) were achieved.

    • Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical classification of IRS-P3 MOS-B satellite ocean colour data

      R K Sarangi Prakash Chauhan S R Nayak

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      The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRSP3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and an optical classification based onKd values was performed. An atmospheric correction scheme was used for retrieving water leaving radiances in blue and green channels of 412, 443, 490 and 550 nm. The upwelling radiances from 443 nm and 550 nm spectral channels were used for computation of vertical diffuse attenuation coefficientKd at 490 nm. The waters off the Gujarat coast were classified into different water types based on Jerlov classification scheme. The oceanic water type IA (Kd range 0.035-0.040m-1), type IB (0.042-0.065 m-1), type II (0.07-0.1m-1) and type III (0.115-0.14m-1) were identified. For the coastal waters along Gujarat coast and Gulf of Kachchh, Kd(490) values ranged between 0.15 m-1 and 0.35 m-1. The depth of 1% of surface light for water type IA, IB, II and III corresponds to 88, 68, 58 and 34 meters respectively. Classification of oceanic and coastal waters based onKd is useful in understanding the light transmission characteristics for sub-marine navigation and under-water imaging.

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