• S R Kalsi

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Synoptic weather conditions during the pilot study of Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX)

      S R Kalsi

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      BOBMEX-Pilot was organised from 23rd October–11th November, 1998 when the seasonal trough had already shifted to south Bay of Bengal. The activity during this period was marked by the development of a monsoon depression from 26th–29th October that weakened over the sea; onset of northeast monsoon along the east coast of India on 29th October; a low pressure area that formed on 2nd November over southwest Bay off Sri Lanka — southTamilnadu coast; and another cyclonic circulation that formed towards the end of the BOBMEX-Pilot period. This paper describes the development of these synoptic systems through synoptic charts and satellite data.

    • Circulation characteristics of a monsoon depression during BOBMEX-99 using high-resolution analysis

      Ananda K Das U C Mohanty Someshwar Das M Manual S R Kalsi

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      The skill and efficiency of a numerical model mostly varies with the quality of initial values, accuracy on parameterization of physical processes and horizontal and vertical resolution of the model. Commonly used low-resolution reanalyses are hardly able to capture the prominent features associated with organized convective processes in a monsoon depression. The objective is to prepare improved high-resolution analysis by the use of MM5 modelling system developed by the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR). It requires the objective comparison of high and low-resolution analysis datasets in assessing the specific convective features of a monsoon depression. For this purpose, reanalysis datasets of NCAR/NCEP (National Center for Atmospheric Research/National Centers for Environmental Prediction) at a horizontal resolution of 2.5‡ (latitude/longitude) have been used as first guess in the objective analysis scheme. The additional asynoptic datasets obtained during BOBMEX-99 are utilized within the assimilation process. Cloud Motion Wind (CMW) data of METEOSAT satellite and SSM/I surface wind data are included for the improvement of derived analysis. The multiquadric (MQD) interpolation technique is selected and applied for meteorological objective analysis at a horizontal resolution of 30 km. After a successful inclusion of additional data, the resulting reanalysis is able to produce the structure of convective organization as well as prominent synoptic features associated with monsoon depression. Comparison and error verifications have been done with the help of available upper-air station data. The objective verification reveals the efficiency of the analysis scheme.

    • Synoptic weather conditions during BOBMEX

      S R Kalsi

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      We document the flow features, which are associated with the important synoptic systems that affected the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and its neighbourhood and controlled the convective activity there during BOBMEX. The monsoon during July and August, 1999 was subdued. It was slightly more active in the initial phase of BOBMEX that commenced on 15th July 1999 and continued up to first week of August 1999 but weakened during the second half of August. The convection was accordingly affected, reducing the rainfall over India. There were several active and weak spells of convection over the Bay of Bengal that manifested in five low pressure systems, of which two became depressions.

    • Assimilation of Doppler weather radar observations in a mesoscale model for the prediction of rainfall associated with mesoscale convective systems

      S Abhilash Someshwar Das S R Kalsi M Das Gupta K Mohankumar J P George S K Banerjee S B Thampi D Pradhan

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      Obtaining an accurate initial state is recognized as one of the biggest challenges in accurate model prediction of convective events. This work is the first attempt in utilizing the India Meteorological Department (IMD) Doppler radar data in a numerical model for the prediction of mesoscale convective complexes around Chennai and Kolkata. Three strong convective events both over Chennai and Kolkata have been considered for the present study. The simulation experiments have been carried out using fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) version 3.5.6. The variational data assimilation approach is one of the most promising tools available for directly assimilating the mesoscale observations in order to improve the initial state. The horizontal wind derived from the DWR has been used alongwith other conventional and non-conventional data in the assimilation system. The preliminary results from the three dimensional variational (3DVAR) experiments are encouraging. The simulated rainfall has also been compared with that derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The encouraging result from this study can be the basis for further investigation of the direct assimilation of radar reflectivity data in 3DVAR system. The present study indicates that Doppler radar data assimilation improves the initial field and enhances the Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) skill.

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