S K Gupta
Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 94 Issue 3 November 1985 pp 283-295
A comprehensive set of measurements of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios in groundwaters as well as waters from rivers, lakes, hot springs etc. taken from a variety of locations in India has been carried out for the first time. Isotopically the most depleted samples occur in the high altitude precipitations in the Himalayas e.g. in the lakes of Bhutan and the source water of the Ganga. The shallow groundwater data display a continental effect where the heavy isotope content decreases with distance from the coast (about 4 to 6 per mil decrease in δ18O per 1000 km). The δ D and δ18O of these fresh waters are linearly related and an analysis of this relation vis-a-vis the meteoric water line shows the unambiguous effect of enrichment due to evaporation from soils.
Volume 108 Issue 2 June 1999 pp 107-116
A 54-m long core was raised from the bed of the Nal Sarovar, a large shallow lake located in the middle of the low-lying region linking the Gulfs of Kachchh and Khambhat, in western India. A three-layer sequence comprising: Zone-1 (top 3 m), predominantly silty-clay/clayey; Zone-2 (3–18 m), sandy; and Zone-3 (18–54 m), dominated by sticky silty-clay/clayey-silt with occasional thin sand layers and basalt fragments was identified. Smectite and illite are the dominant clay minerals with minor amounts of kaolinite and chlorite. Very high content of smectite (53–97%) in the clays of the lowermost zone (18–54 m) and the geomorphic features of the surrounding region suggested that the sediments were derived from the basaltic terrain of Saurashtra and/or via the Gulf of Khambhat. The clay content in the middle zone (3–18 m), dominantly sandy, is very low. Therefore, provenance for this zone was derived using heavy minerals in the sand fraction. The heavy mineral species in this zone suggested the mixed metamorphic and igneous terrain of Aravallis as the major source. The grain-size distribution of this zone closely matched with the sediments underlying the modern Sabarmati riverbed at Ahmedabad, suggesting fluvial depositional environment. Clays also dominate sediments of the topmost (0–3 m) zone with illite as the dominant (74–81%) specie followed by smectite suggesting derivation from the mixed metamorphic and igneous terrain of Aravallis.
Volume 112 Issue 1 March 2003 pp 51-60
Temporal variations have been observed in both dissolved helium and TDS in the form of increase in basaltic and decrease in alluvial aquifers. The increase in basaltic aquifers has been explained by enhanced pumping of old groundwater with relatively higher concentration of dissolved helium and salt, whereas the decrease in alluvial aquifers has been explained by dilution from the post monsoon groundwater recharge. Therefore, the observed temporal variations cannot be ascribed to the contemporary enhanced seismic activity in this region since August–September 2000.