• S K Dube

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • A steady state model of the Somali current

      P K Das S K Dube G S Rao

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      A steady state model of the Somali current including forcing by both the curl and the divergence of the wind stress is discussed. The model equations are linear, but the results presented are for the one nonlinear case. The grid resolution was 12 km in the zonal and 24 km in the meridional direction. The streamfunction and velocity potential of the current are presented for forcing by divergence and compared with a situation when only the curl is present. The results indicate that a two-gyre system appears in July, a representative month for the summer monsoon, only when divergence is included. Computations with available data indicate that the divergence is comparable in magnitude to the curl near the location of the Somali current. The model produces three other important features: (i) strong upwelling off the east coast of Africa, (ii) downwelling over central Arabian sea and (iii) a strong eastward current in the upper layer towards the interior of the Arabian sea near 12°N.

    • Mean monthly wind driven climatological circulation model of the Bay of Bengal

      S K Dube Indu Jain A D Rao P C Sinha

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      A special feature of the Bay of Bengal circulation is its seasonal variation in response to the monsoonal winds. In the case of the Bay of Bengal, observationally very little is known about the large scale circulation. Theoretically, the problem of driving the circulation in the Bay of Bengal is more complex than that in other basins because of the presence of large quantities of fresh water discharge from Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna river systems, and also because the atmospheric driving forces even within a season are highly variable with frequent occurrences of tropical disturbances. Exploring the nature of the circulation in the Bay of Bengal is a problem of great importance in itself as well as for the critical role this region plays in the genesis of tropical disturbances which are the main source of large scale rainfall over the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The surface circulation of the Bay of Bengal may, therefore, help in understanding the variation of rainfall over time scales ranging from the subseasonal to the interannual.

      Keeping this in view, an attempt was made towards the development of an oceanic climatological circulation model for the Bay of Bengal, which explains the seasonal variability of the currents. The model is fully non-linear and vertically integrated, with realistic basin geometry. The treatment of coastal boundaries involves a procedure leading to a realistic curvilinear representation of the western and eastern sides of the Bay of Bengal. This coastal representation has the advantage of taking into account the finer resolution in the shallow regions of the northern Bay.

      The model is forced by the monthly mean wind stress derived from 30 years (1950–79) of Comprehensive Oceanographic Atmospheric Data Sets (COADS). Special emphasis is given to the southern open boundary condition for the model. For this purpose, sensitivity experiments have been performed with six open boundary conditions and a comparative study of the results has been made. These sensitivity tests for the open boundary condition will help the development of a suitable coupled ocean-atmosphere model for this region. The model-generated main features are in general agreement with the known climatological circulation of the Bay of Bengal.

    • Numerical simulation of upwelling off Visakhapatnam on east coast of India during pre-monsoon months

      A D Rao P C Sinha S K Dube S Chamarthi

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      A three-dimensional numerical model of the type described by Johns and coworkers (1992), hereafter referred to as model (J), is applied to study the response of a coastal ocean to pure wind-stress forcing. Conservation equations are applied for mass, momentum, temperature, salinity and turbulence energy. Experiments are performed to investigate the evolution of the thermal structure and upwelling processes along the east coast of India during the pre-monsoon season. A comparison between the computed results and the limited observations on the thermal structure and alongshore currents over the inner-shelf off Visakhapatnam is presented.

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