• S K Dhaka

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Long-term variations in outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR), convective available potential energy (CAPE) and temperature in the tropopause region over India

      R Sapra S K Dhaka V Panwar R Bhatnagar K Praveen Kumar Y Shibagaki M Venkat Ratnam M Takahashi

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      Relationship of outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) with convective available potential energy (CAPE) and temperature at the 100-hPa pressure level is examined using daily radiosonde data for a period 1980–2006 over Delhi (28.3° N, 77.1°E) and Kolkata (22.3°N, 88.2°E), and during 1989–2005 over Cochin (10°N, 77°E) and Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77.0°E), India. Correlation coefficient ($R_xy$) between monthly OLR and CAPE shows a significant (∼ −0.45) anti-correlation at Delhi and Kolkata suggesting low OLR associated with high convective activity during summer (seasonal variation). Though, no significant correlation was found between OLR and CAPE at Cochin and Trivandrum (low latitude region); analysis of OLR and temperature (at 100-hPa) association suggests that low OLR peaks appear corresponding to low temperature at Delhi ($R_xy$ ∼0.30) and Kolkata ($R_xy$ ∼0.25) during summer. However, $R_xy$ between OLR and temperature becomes opposite as we move towards low latitudes (∼8° $–$10°N) due to strong solar cycle influence. Large scale components mainly ENSO and quasi-biennial oscillaton (QBO) that contributed to the 100-hPa temperature variability were also analyzed, which showed that ENSO variance is larger by a factor of two in comparison to QBO over Indian region. ENSO warm conditions cause warming at 100-hPa over Delhi and Darwin. However, due to strong QBO and solar signals in the equatorial region, ENSO signal seems less effective. QBO, ENSO, and solar cycle contribution in temperature are found location-dependent (latitudinal variability) responding in consonance with shifting in convective activity regime during El Niño, seasonal variability in the tropical easterly jet, and the solar irradiance.

    • AIRS observations of seasonal variability in meridional temperature gradient over Indian region at 100 hPa

      A Gupta S K Dhaka V Panwar R Bhatnagar V Kumar Savita M Datta S K Dash

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      To investigate the temperature changes at 100 hPa over Indian region from Arabian Sea (AS) to Bay of Bengal (BOB), analysis is performed using Atmospheric Infra Red Sounder (AIRS) temperature and outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) data of 9 years (2003–2011). Fine-scale temperature variations have been studied and shown for summer (March–April–May, MAM), summer monsoon (June–July–August–September, JJAS) and winter (November–December–January–February, NDJF) months. Similarities and differences in the latitudinal and longitudinal variation of temperature and the possible causes have been examined. During MAM and NDJF, the temperature increases latitudinally by ∼2–3 K and ∼4–5 K from 3.5° to 20.5°N, respectively. However, the temperature decreases by ∼2.0–2.5 K during JJAS. A similar contrasting behaviour is observed in latitudinal temperature gradient. For MAM and NDJF, the gradient decreases from ∼0.18 to ∼0.14 K/deg and ∼0.25 to ∼0.18 K/deg, respectively, as we move longitudinally from 60° to 90°E; however, for JJAS, it increases from ∼0.10 to ∼0.14 K/deg over the same longitudes. It is found that latitudinal temperature gradient for NDJF is larger by about a factor of 1.5. Analysis suggests latitudinal change in temperature occurs due to low OLR (proxy of convection) and its northward progression during summer monsoon. Correlation coefficient (𝑅_xy) between OLR and temperature is computed latitudinally (3.5° to 20.5°N) at different longitudes and during JJAS (monsoon months), 𝑅xy is negative (∼−0.73) over 60° and 70°E longitudes, but it turns positive (∼0.92) over 80° and 90°E longitudes (which is convectively active region), suggesting a close association between low temperature and low OLR. Land–sea contrast is also observed in temperature at 100 hPa with a slight increase (∼0.5 K) from sea to land.

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