• S Hoernes

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • A HFSE- and REE-enriched ferrodiorite suite from the Bolangir Anorthosite Complex, Eastern Ghats Belt, India

      M Raith A Bhattacharya S Hoernes

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      The massif-type anorthosite complex at Bolangir in the northern part of the Eastern Ghats belt occurs in a milieu of predominantly supracrustal granulite-grade rocks. The massif is separated from the host gneisses by coarse-grained garnetiferous granitoid gneisses which are interpreted as coeval crustallyderived melts. Melanocratic ferrodiorite rocks occur at the immediate contact with the anorthosite massif which they intrude in cross-cutting dikes and sheets. The emplacement age of the anorthosite diapir and the associated igneous suites is deemed to be pre-D2. Recrystallization of the igneous assemblages of the ferrodiorite suite (750–800°C, 7–8kbar,$$a_{H_2 O}< 0.25, logf_{O_2 }< - 18 bar$$) during a period of near-isobaric cooling from the igneous crystallization stage to the regionalP-T regime led to extensive development of coronitic garnet at the interface of plagioclase phenocrysts with the mafic matrix assemblage (opx + fay + cpx + ilm ± amph, bio). Abundant accessory phases are zircon, apatite and thorite. The mafic phases have extremely ferrous compositions (XFe gar: 0.93-0.87, fay: 0.90-0.87, opx: 0.80-0.60, cpx: 0.70-0.47, amph: 0.81-0.71) reflecting the low Mg-number (16-8) of the rocks. Compared to worldwide occurrences of similar rocks, the Bolangir ferrodiorites (SiO2 36–58 wt.%, FeO*: 39-10 wt.%) are characterized by exceptionally high concentrations of HFSE and REE (TiO2: 4.8-1.0 wt.%, P2O5: 1.7-0.5 wt.%, Zr: 5900-1300 ppm, Y: 240-80 ppm, La: 540-100 ppm, Ce: 1100-200 ppm, Yb: 22-10 ppm, Th: 195-65 ppm). Well defined linear variation trends for major and trace elements reflect progressive plagioclase accumulation towards the felsic members of the suite. The ferrodiorites are interpreted to represent residual liquids of anorthosite crystallization which after segregation and extraction from the ascending diapir became enriched in HFSE and REE through selective assimilation of accessory phases (zircon, monazite, apatite) from crustal felsic melts. Ferromonzodioritic rock presumably formed through hybridization between the ferrodiorite and overlying felsic melts.

    • Relative contributions of crust and mantle to the origin of the Bijli Rhyolite in a palaeoproterozoic bimodal volcanic sequence (Dongargarh Group), central India

      S Sensarma S Hoernes D Mukhopadhyay

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      New mineralogical, bulk chemical and oxygen isotope data on the Palaeoproterozoic Bijli Rhyolite, the basal unit of a bimodal volcanic sequence (Dongargarh Group) in central India, and one of the most voluminous silicic volcanic expressions in the Indian Shield, are presented. The Bijli Rhyolite can be recognized as a poorly sorted pyroclastic deposit, and comprises of phenocrystic K-feldspar + albite ± anorthoclase set in fine-grained micro-fragmental matrix of quartz-feldspar-sericite-chlorite-iron-oxide ± calcite. The rocks are largely metaluminous with high SiO2, Na2O + K2O, Fe/Mg, Ga/Al, Zr, Ta, Sn, Y, REE and low CaO, Ba, Sr contents; the composition points to an ‘A-type granite’ melt. The rocks show negative Cs-, Sr-, Eu- and Ti- anomalies with incompatible element concentrations 2–3 times more than the upper continental crust (UCC). LREE is high (La/Yb ∼ 20) and HREE 20–30 times chondritic. δ18Owhole-rock varies between 4.4 and 7.8‰ (mean 5.87±1.26‰).

      The Bijli melt is neither formed by fractionation of a basaltic magma, nor does it represent a fractionated crustal melt. It is shown that the mantle-derived high temperature basaltic komatiitic melts/high Mg basalts triggered crustal melting, and interacted predominantly with deep crust compositionally similar to the Average Archaean Granulite (AAG), and a shallower crustal component with low CaO and Al2O3 to give rise to the hybrid Bijli melts. Geochemical mass balance suggests that ∼ 30% partial melting of AAG under anhydrous condition, instead of the upper continental crust (UCC) including the Amgaon granitoid gneiss reported from the area, better matches the trace element concentrations in the rocks. The similar Ta/Th of the rhyolites (0.060) and average granulite (0.065) vs. UCC (0.13) also support a deep crustal protolith. Variable contributions of crust and mantle, and action of hydrothermal fluid are attributed for the spread in δ18Owhole-rock values. The fast eruption of high temperature (∼ 900°C) rhyolitic melts suggests a rapid drop in pressure of melting related to decompression in an extensional setting.

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