• S Bhattacharya

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Evolution of Eastern Ghats granulite belt of India in a compressional tectonic regime and juxtaposition against Iron Ore Craton of Singhbhum by oblique collision — transpression

      S Bhattacharya

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      Three major episodes of folding are evident in the Eastern Ghats terrain. The first and second generation folds are the reclined type; coaxial refolding has produced hook-shaped folds, except in massif-type charnockites in which non-coaxial refolding has produced arrow head folds. The third generation folds are upright with a stretching lineation parallel to subhorizontal fold axes. The sequence of fold stylesreclinedF1and coaxialF2, clearly points to an early compressional regime and attendant progressive simple shear. Significant subhorizontal extension duringF3folding is indicated by stretching lineation parallel to subhorizontal fold axes. In the massif-type charnockites low plunges ofF2folds indicate a flattening type of deformation partitioning in the weakly foliated rocks (magmatic ?). The juxtaposition of EGMB against the Iron Ore Craton of Singhbhum by oblique collision is indicative of a transpressional regime.

    • Dehydration melting of micas in the Chilka Lake Khondalites: The link between the metapelites and granitoids

      S K Sen S Bhattacharya

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      Garnet-sillimanite gneisses, locally known as khondalites, occur abundantly in the Chilka Lake granulite terrane belonging to the Eastern Ghats Proterozoic belt of India. Though their chemistry has been modified by partial melting, it is evident that the majority of these rocks are metapelitic, with some tending to be metapsammitic. Five petrographically distinct groups are present within the khondalites of which the most abundant group is characteristically low in Mg:Fe ratios — the main chemical discriminant separating the five groups. The variations in Mg:Fe ratios of the garnets, biotites, cordierites, orthopyroxenes and spinels from the metapelites are compatible with those in the bulk rocks.

      A suite of granitoids containing garnet, K-feldspar, plagioclase and quartz, commonly referred to as leptynites in Indian granulite terranes, are interlayered with khondalites on the scale of exposures; in a few spots, the intercalated layers are thin. The peraluminous character of the leptynites and presence of sillimanite trails within garnets in some of them suggest derivation of leptynites by partial melting of khondalites. Here we examine this connection in the light of results derived from dehydration melting experiments of micas in pelitic and psammitic rocks.

      The plots of leptynites of different chemical compositions in a (MgO + FeO)-Na2O-K2O projection match the composition of liquids derived by biotite and muscovite dehydration melting, when corrected for co-products of melting reactions constrained by mass balance and modal considerations. The melt components of the leptynites describe four clusters in the M-N-K diagram. One of them matches melts produced dominantly by muscovite dehydration melting, while three clusters correspond to melting of biotite. The relative disposition of the clusters suggests two trends, which can be correlated with different paths that pelitic and psammitic protoliths are expected to generate during dehydration melting. Thus the leptynites evidently represent granitoids which were produced by dehydration melting in metapelites of different compositions.

      The contents of Ti, Y, Nb, Zr and Th in several leptynites indicate departures from equilibrium melt compositions, and entrainment of restites is considered to be the main causative factor. Disequilibrium in terms of major elements is illustrated by leucosomes within migmatites developed in a group of metapelites. But the discrete leptynites that have been compared with experimental melts approach equilibrium melt compositions closely.

    • Diverse signatures of deformation, pressure-temperature and anatexis in the Rayagada sector of the Eastern Ghats granulite terrane

      S K Sen S Bhattacharya

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      The granulites and granitoids around Rayagada in the north central part of the Eastern Ghats belt display structural and petrological differences when compared to similar rocks from Chilka and Jenapore in the northern Eastern Ghats. The impress of F1 deformation is almost erased while that ofF3 is muted. The metapelites have a restricted chemical range and are non-migmatitic. There are two varieties of leptynitic granitoids, one of which is interlayered with yet another S-type granite containing cordierite. The maximum recorded temperature from geothermometers is 780‡C, but the magnitude of pressure is comparatively low, the highest value being 6.3 kbar. Another distinctive feature of the pressuretemperature record is the absence of evidence of decompression in the lower realms of pressure and temperature. Metamorphic reactions that could be identified indicate cooling, a noteworthy reaction being the sillimanite to andalusite transformation. Integration of data from pressure-temperature sensors suggest cooling at two pressures, 6 and 5 kbar. The generation of two types of granitoids from metapelites is interpreted to be due to intersection with solidus curves for pelitic and graywacke-like compositions, constrained by recent experiments, at 6 and 5 kbar. The first melting occurred on a prograde path while the second one was due to increase in temperature during exhumation at tectonic rates.

      Thus inspite of a broad similarity in the geodynamic scenario across the northern part of the Eastern Ghat belt, differences in exhumation rates and in style of melting were responsible for producing different signatures in the Rayagada granulite terrane.

    • Grenvillian thermal event and remnant charnockite: Isotopic evidence from the Chilka Lake granulite-migmatite suite in the Eastern Ghats belt, India

      S Bhattacharya M P Deomurari W Teixeira

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      Spectacular exposures of granulite-migmatite occur in the Chilka Lake area of the Eastern Ghats belt. The garnetiferous granite gneiss of peraluminous granitic composition, often contains restitic metapelite inclusions and is demonstrably a product of biotite-dehydration melting in pelitic rocks. On the other hand, older layers and bands of charnockitic rocks frequently occur as dismembered patches within the peraluminous granite, thus imparting a measled appearance of the granite exposures.

      The partial melting and emplacement of the peraluminous granite represent the Grenvillian thermal event, as evidenced by Rb-Sr whole rock and Pb-Pb zircon dating. On the other hand, minor patches of charnockite represent migmatized relict, as evidenced by some older zircons, in addition to those of Grenvillian age.

    • Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the eastern ghats belt, India: Shear zone pathway and a pull-apart structure

      S Bhattacharya Rajib Kar

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      The alkaline complex of Koraput, Orissa, India, is one of several bodies in the high-grade Eastern Ghats belt, but this one is an integral part of the high-grade belt and remote from the western boundary against the Bastar craton. The Koraput complex forms a lozenge-shaped intrusion into the metapelitic granulites and is bounded by shear zones. The combined effect of movement along these shear zones, is a northeasterly elongated sygmoidal cavity with maximum width along the northwesterly trending Reidel shear. Thus the Koraput alkaline complex can be considered to have been emplaced in a pull-apart structure, developed in the granulitic country rocks. Moreover, in view of the fact that the western margin of the high-grade Eastern Ghats belt bears clear evidence of collisional features, rather than that of rifting or break-up, the rift-valley model for the alkaline magmatism in this high-grade belt appears untenable.

    • Petrogenesis of granitoid rocks at the northern margin of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt and evidence of syn-collisional magmatism

      S Bhattacharya Rajib Kar S Moitra

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      The northern margin of the Eastern Ghats Mobile belt against the Singhbhum craton exposes granitic rocks with enclaves from both the high-grade and low-grade belts. A shear cleavage developed in the boundary region is also observed in these granitoids. Field features and petrography indicate syn-tectonic emplacement of these granitoids. Petrology-mineralogy and geochemistry indicate that some of the granitoids are derived from the high-grade protoliths by dehydration melting. Others could have been derived from low-grade protoliths. Moreover, microstructural signatures in these granitoids attest to their syn-collisional emplacement.

    • Contrasting magmatic signatures in the Rairakhol and Koraput alkaline complexes, Eastern Ghats belt, India

      S Bhattacharya M Basei

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      The relation between alkaline magmatism and tectonism has been a contentious issue, particularly for the Precambrian continental regions. Alkaline complexes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt, India, have been interpreted as rift-valley magmatism. However, those complexes occurring in granulite ensemble in the interior segments of the Eastern Ghats belt could not possibly be related to the rift-system, assumed for the western margin of the Eastern Ghats belt. Koraput complex was emplaced in a pull-apart structure, dominated by magmatic fabrics and geochemically similar to a fractionated alkaline complex, compatible with an alkalibasalt series. Rairakhol complex, on the other hand, shows dominantly solid-state deformation fabrics and geochemically similar to a fractionated calc-alkaline suite. Isotopic data for the Koraput complex indicate ca. 917 Ma alkaline magmatism from a depleted mantle source and postcrystalline thermal overprint at ca. 745 Ma, also recorded from sheared metapelitic country rocks. The calc-alkaline magmatism of the Rairakhol complex occurred around 938 Ma, from an enriched mantle source, closely following Grenvillian granulite facies imprint in the charnockitic country rocks.

    • Mafic dykes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt: Evidence of rifting and collision

      S Bhattacharya A K Chaudhary W Teixeira

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      The southwestern margin of the Eastern Ghats Belt characteristically exposes ma fic dykes intruding massif-type charnockites. Dykes of olivine basalt of alkaline composition have characteristic trace element signatures comparable with Ocean Island Basalt (OIB). Most importantly strong positive Nb anomaly and low values of Zr/Nb ratio are consistent with OIB source of the mafic dykes. K –Ar isotopic data indicate two cooling ages at 740 and 530 Ma. The Pan-African thermal event could be related to reactivation of major shear zones and represented by leuco-granite vein along minor shear bands. And 740 Ma cooling age may indicate the low grade metamorphic imprints, noted in some of the dykes. Although no intrusion age could be determined from the present dataset, it could be constrained by some age data of the host charnockite gneiss and Alkaline rocks of the adjacent Prakasam Province. Assuming an intrusion age of ∼1 .3 Ga, Sr –Nd isotopic composition of the dykes indicate that they preserved time-integrated LREE enrichment. In view of the chemical signatures of OIB source, the ma fic dykes could as well be related to continental rifting, around 1.3 Ga, which may have been initiated by intra-plate volcanism.

    • Detection of Mg spinel lithologies on central peak of crater Theophilus using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1

      D Lal P Chauhan R D Shah S Bhattacharya Ajai A S Kiran Kumar

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      Spectral reflectance data derived from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard India’s Chandrayaan-1 has revealed Fe bearing Mg-spinel-rich lithology on central peaks of the crater Theophilus. These newly identified Fe bearing Mg-spinel-rich rock types are defined by their strong 2-𝜇m absorption and lack of 1-𝜇m absorptions in spectral reflectance response. Such lithology has been reported previously along the inner ring of Moscoviense Basin on the lunar far side. The Modified Gaussian Modeling (MGM) analysis of the Fe bearing Mg-spinel reflectance spectra has been done and the results of the analysis clearly bring out a strong spectral absorption at 1872 nm with no significant absortion around 1000 nm. The presence of spinel group of minerals in the Theophilus central peak and the fact that central peaks mostly represent uplifted mass of deep crustal material confirm that central peaks can be used as a window to study the deep crustal and/or upper mantle composition and may lead to a fresh perspective about the crustal composition of Moon.

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