• S Banerjee

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the Rohtas Limestone (Vindhyan Supergroup) in the Son valley area, central India

      S Banerjee S K Bhattacharya S Sarkar

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      The early Mesoproterozoic Rohtas Limestone in the Son valley area of central India represents an overall shallowing-upward carbonate succession. Detailed facies analysis of the limestone reveals outer- to inner-shelf deposition in an open marine setting. Wave-ripples, hummocky cross stratifications and edgewise conglomerates argue against a deep marine depositional model for the Rohtas Limestone proposed earlier. Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that δ13C and δ18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution seams. Band-wise isotopic analysis reveals systematic short-term variations. Comparative enrichment of the heavier isotopes in the upper bands is attributed to early cementation from sea water and water derived from the lower band undergoing dissolution because of lowering of pH at depth. The short-term positive shifts in isotopic compositions in almost every upward gradational transition from a seamed band to a non-seamed band support the contention that dissolution seams here are of early diagenetic origin, although their formation was accentuated under overburden pressure.

    • Stratigraphy, sedimentology and bulk organic geochemistry of black shales from the Proterozoic Vindhyan Supergroup (central India)

      S Banerjee S Dutta S Paikaray U Mann

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      Four organic-rich shale units of the Proterozoic Vindhyan sedimentary succession have been scanned to reveal their origin and hydrocarbon potential. The wavy-crinkly nature of the carbonaceous laminae is suggestive of a microbial mat origin of the shales. These shales are thus different from Phanerozoic black shales which typically exhibit planar laminae. The hydrocarbon potential of the black shale units has been evaluated by Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Total organic carbon content of many of the shales exceeds 1%. The meanTmax for the black shales translate to a vitrinite reflectance range of 2.05-2.40% Rm based on standard conversion techniques. These shales have reached the catagenetic stage near the beginning of anthracite formation.

    • Petrographic observations suggestive of microbial mats from Rampur Shale and Bijaigarh Shale, Vindhyan basin, India

      S Sur J Schieber S Banerjee

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      Petrographic observations of two Vindhyan black shales (Rampur Shale of the Semri Group and Bijaigarh Shale of the Kaimur Group) revealed the following features:

      •general wavy lamination,

      •contorted and folded thin shreds of organic matter,

      •wavy pyritic laminae,

      •‘teeth and socket’ structure.

      These features are indirect evidence of microbial mat colonization during the Proterozoic. The microbial mats probably fixed carbon at the sediment surface, stabilized sediment and recycled organic matter and were the primary producers, unlike during the Phanerozoic time.

    • Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of the carbonate facies in the Vindhyan Supergroup, central India

      S Banerjee S K Bhattacharya S Sarkar

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      The Vindhyan sedimentary succession in central India spans a wide time bracket from the Paleoproterozoic to the Neoproterozoic period. Chronostratigraphic significance of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of the carbonate phase in Vindhyan sediments has been discussed in some recent studies. However, the subtle controls of facies variation, depositional setting and post-depositional diagenesis on stable isotope compositions are not yet clearly understood. The Vindhyan Supergroup hosts four carbonate units, exhibiting a wide variability in depositional processes and paleogeography. A detailed facies-specific carbon and oxygen isotope study of the carbonate units was undertaken by us to investigate the effect of these processes and to identify the least altered isotope values. It is seen that both carbon and oxygen isotope compositions have been affected by early meteoric water diagenesis. The effect of diagenetic alteration is, however, more pronounced in case of oxygen isotopes than carbon isotopes. Stable isotope compositions remained insensitive to facies only when sediments accumulated in a shallow shelf setting without being exposed. Major alteration of original isotope ratios was observed in case of shallow marine carbonates, which became exposed to meteoric fluids during early diagenetic stage. Duration of exposure possibly determined the magnitude of alteration and shift from the original values. Moreover, dolomitization is found to be accompanied by appreciable alteration of isotope compositions in some of the carbonates. The present study suggests that variations in sediment depositional settings, in particular the possibility of subaerial exposure, need to be considered while extracting chronostratigraphic significance from δ13C data.

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