• S Balakrishnan

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Significance of Sm-Nd isotope systematics in crustal genesis: A case study of Archaean metabasalts of the eastern Dharwar Craton

      J K Zachariah S Balakrishnan V Rajamani

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Determination of the age of rocks by whole rock Sm-Nd isochron method has several limitations imposed by petrogenetic processes. If the age of the rocks can be determined by other independent methods, the Sm-Nd system provides a wealth of information to understand crustal genesis. Sm-Nd isotopic studies of metabasaltic rocks of the Archaean Kolar and Ramagiri Schist belts in the eastern Dharwar Craton indicate that the system was disturbed by postmagmatic fluid alteration processes associated with terrane accretion.

    • Contrasting metamorphism across cauvery shear zone, south India

      Manish M John S Balakrishnan B K Bhadra

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The Palghat Cauvery Shear Zone (CSZ) is a major shear zone that possibly extends into different fragments of Gondwanaland. In the present study mafic granulites occurring on either side of the CSZ in Namakkal area, southern India are examined. Textural features recorded in the mafic granulites are crucial in elucidating the metamorphic history of the southern granulite terrane (SGT).

      In the mafic granulites occurring to the south of CSZ, evidence of garnet breaking down during near isothermal decompression (ITD) is indicated by the development of orthopyroxene + plagioclase moats in between quartz and garnet. The presence of comparatively small elongated second generation garnet embedded in pyroxenes from the mafic granulites occurring to the north of CSZ is indicative of the garnet formation via reaction between pyroxenes and plagioclase, which occurred during isobaric cooling (IBC).

      Rocks occurring to the south of CSZ have recorded comparatively higher temperature and pressure (849‡C and 9.6kbar) than those occurring to the north of the CSZ (731‡C and 8.6kbar) using conventional geothermobarometry. The rocks occurring to the north of CSZ have suffered more complex metamorphic histories in comparison to the southern part. Integrating the results of the present field and metamorphic studies with the earlier investigations and available geochronological data we suggest that the CSZ could represent a suture zone between two different continental blocks that underwent distinct metamorphic evolution.

    • Climatic control on clay mineral formation: Evidence from weathering profiles developed on either side of the Western Ghats

      R Deepthy S Balakrishnan

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Many physico-chemical variables like rock-type, climate, topography and exposure age affect weathering environments. In the present study, an attempt is made to understand how the nature of clay minerals formed due to weathering differs in tropical regions receiving high and low rainfall. Clay mineralogy of weathering profiles in west coast of India, which receives about 3 m rainfall through two monsoons and those from the inland rain-shadow zones (<200 cm rainfall) are studied using X-ray diffraction technique. In the west coast, 1:1 clays (kaolinite) and Fe—Al oxides (gibbsite/goethite) are dominant clay minerals in the weathering profiles while 2:1 clay minerals are absent or found only in trace amounts. Weathering profiles in the rain shadow region have more complex clay mineralogy and are dominated by 2:1 clays and kaolinite. Fe—Al oxides are either less or absent in clay fraction. The kaolinite—smectite interstratified mineral in Banasandra profiles are formed due to transformation of smectites to kaolinite, which is indicative of a humid paleoclimate. In tropical regions receiving high rainfall the clay mineral assemblage remains the same irrespective of the parent rock type. Rainfall and availability of water apart from temperature, are the most important factors that determine kinetics of chemical weathering. Mineral alteration reactions proceed through different pathways in water rich and water poor environments.

    • 1420 Ma diabasic intrusives from the Mesoproterozoic Singhora Group, Chhattisgarh Supergroup, India: Implications towards non-plume intrusive activity

      Priyabrata Das Kaushik Das Partha Pratim Chakraborty S Balakrishnan

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Besides offering significant clues towards tracking the geochemical evolution of the mantle and architectural reconstruction of different ‘supercontinent’, geochronological and geochemical appraisal of igneous inputs are also important to bracket the depositional time frame of any lithopackage, particularly, the unfossiliferous sedimentary successions. The present study deals with diabasic intrusive within Mesoproterozoic Saraipalli Formation, which is an argillaceous constituent present at the basal part of nearly 400 m thick four-tiered unmetamorphosed but deformed sedimentary succession of Singhora Group, Chhattisgarh Supergroup, central India. The SE–NW trending intrusive comprises mainly of plagioclase and augite together with minor orthopyroxene, biotite and opaque minerals. Though some plagioclase laths are partially sericitized, the ophitic-to-subophitic texture of the rock is well preserved. Major and trace element geochemical data indicate that this intrusive is basalt-to-basaltic andesite in character and of subalkaline basalt affinity. Multi-element plot shows overall LILE-enrichment and enrichment of Pb and slight depletion of Nb and P, coupled with moderate La/Nb and Th/Nb ratios. Zr, Y and Nb ternary diagrams plot in the fields of within plate basalt. Selected HFSE ratios indicate a non-plume source with crustal assimilation/sediment mixing. Sm–Nd and Rb–Sr isotope data show that the intrusive has Srinitial and Ndinitial of 0.709377–0.706672 and 0.510919–0.510815, respectively. Positive 𝜀tNd [t = 1420 Ma] values (+0.3 to + 2.3) indicate depleted isotopic nature of their protolith. The calculated $T_{DM}$ age is 1.7–1.9 Ga. The mineral-whole rock isochron data (Sm–Nd systematics) of the intrusive implies an emplacement age of ca. 1420 Ma. Considering synchronous terrain boundary shear zone development in Bastar craton on the southeastern part of the Singhora basin, mafic magmatism in Eastern Ghats and large-scale basic intrusion in Sausar mobile belt, a major tectono-thermal event around 1400 Ma is surmised that affected eastern Indian craton. Moreover, geochronology of a bedded porcellanite unit (ca. 1500 Ma) at the base and a discordant basic intrusive (ca. 1420 Ma) allowed a unique opportunity to qualitatively offer an upper bound of time bracket for the deposition of Saraipalli Formation, i.e., ∼80 Ma.

    • Geochemical and Sm–Nd isotopic study of titanite from granitoid rocks of the eastern Dharwar craton, southern India

      R Anand S Balakrishnan

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Titanite occurs as an accessory phase in a variety of igneous rocks, and is known to concentrate geologically important elements such as U, Th, rare earth element (REE), Y and Nb. The differences in the abundances of the REEs contained in titanite from granitoid rocks could reflect its response to changes in petrogenetic variables such as temperature of crystallization, pressure, composition, etc. Widespread migmatization in the granodiorite gneisses occurring to the east of Kolar and Ramagiri schist belts of the eastern Dharwar craton resulted in the enrichment of the REEs in titanite relative to their respective host rocks. A compositional influence on the partitioning of REEs between titanite and the host rock/magma is also noticed. The relative enrichment of REEs in titanite from quartz monzodiorite is lower than that found in the granodioritic gneiss. Depletion of REE and HFSE (high field-strength elements) abundances in granitic magmas that have equilibrated with titanite during fractional crystallization or partial melting has been modelled. As little as 1% of titanite present in residual phases during partial melting or in residual melts during fractional crystallization can significantly lower the abundances of trace elements such as Nb, Y, Zr and REE which implies the significance of this accessory mineral as a controlling factor in trace element distribution in granitoid rocks. Sm–Nd isotope studies on titanite, hornblende and whole rock yield isochron ages comparable to the precise U–Pb titanite ages, invoking the usefulness of Sm–Nd isochron ages involving minerals like titanite.

    • Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope systematics and geochemical studies on metavolcanic rocks from Peddavura greenstone belt: Evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in easternmost part of Dharwar Craton, India

      M Rajamanickam S Balakrishnan R Bhutani

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Linear, north–south trending Peddavura greenstone belt occurs in easternmost part of the Dharwar Craton. It consists of pillowed basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites (BBA) and rhyolites interlayered with ferruginous chert that were formed under submarine condition. Rhyolites were divided into type-I and II based on their REE abundances and HREE fractionation. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope studies were carried out on the rock types to understand the evolution of the Dharwar Craton. Due to source heterogeneity Sm–Nd isotope system has not yielded any precise age. Rb–Sr whole-rock isochron age of 2551 ± 19 (MSWD = 1.16) Ma for BBA group could represent time of seafloor metamorphism after the formation of basaltic rocks. Magmas representing BBA group of samples do not show evidence for crustal contamination while magmas representing type-II rhyolites had undergone variable extents of assimilation of Mesoarchean continental crust (< 3.3 Ga) as evident from their initial 𝜀Nd isotope values. Trace element and Nd isotope characteristics of type I rhyolites are consistent with model of generation of their magmas by partial melting of mixed sources consisting of basalt and oceanic sediments with continental crustal components. Thus this study shows evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in Peddavura area in eastern part of Dharwar Craton.

  • Journal of Earth System Science | News

© 2017-2019 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru.