Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 115 Issue 3 June 2006 pp 349-362
The local and teleconnective association between Northeast Monsoon Rainfall (NEMR) over Tamil Nadu and global Surface Temperature Anomalies (STA) is examined using the monthly gridded STA data for the period 1901–2004. Various geographical regions which have significant teleconnective signals associated with NEMR are identified. During excess (deficient) NEMR years, it is observed that the meridional gradient in surface air temperature anomalies between Europe and north Africa, in the month of September is directed from the subtropics (higher latitudes) to higher latitudes (subtropics). It is also observed that North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during September influences the surface air temperature distribution over north Africa and Europe. Also, the NAO index in January shows significant inverse relationship with NEMR since recent times. The central and eastern equatorial Pacific oceanic regions have significant and consistent positive correlation with NEMR while the western equatorial region has significant negative correlation with NEMR. A zonal temperature anomaly gradient index (ZTAGI) defined between eastern equatorial Pacific and western equatorial Pacific shows stable significant inverse relationship with NEMR
Volume 116 Issue 2 April 2007 pp 159-169
Using the ISCCP–FD surface radiative ﬂux data for the summer season (June to September) of the period 1992 to 1995, an analysis was done to understand the role of clouds on the surface radiation budget over the Asian monsoon region. At the top of atmosphere (TOA) of convective regions of the Asian monsoon region, the short wave radiative forcing (SWCRF) and long wave radiative forcing (LWCRF) do not cancel each other resulting in occurrence of the net cloud radiative forcing values exceeding $−$30W/m2. This type of imbalance between SWCRF and LWCRF at TOA is reﬂected down on the earth surface–atmosphere system also as an imbalance between surface netcloud radiative forcing (NETCRF) and atmospheric NETCRF.
Based on the regression analysis of the cloud effects on the surface radiation budget quantities, it has been observed that generally, the variance explained by multiple type cloud data is 50% more than that of total cloud cover alone. In case of SWCRF, the total cloud cover can explain about 3% (7%) of the variance whereas the three cloud type descriptions of clouds can explain about 44% (42%) of the variance over oceanic (land) regions. This highlights the importance of cloud type information in explaining the variations of surface radiation budget. It has been observed that the clouds produce more cooling effect in short-wave band than the warming effect in long-wave band resulting in a net cooling at the surface. Over the oceanic region, variations in high cloud amount contribute more to variations in SWCRF while over land regions both middle and high cloud variations make substantial contributions to the variations in both SWCRF and NETCRF.