• S Ameenulla

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Surface meteorological instrumentation for BOBMEX

      G S Bhat S Ameenulla

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      Although India has a long experience in ship-borne experiments and oceanographic instrumentation, the atmospheric component has not received much attention in the past. In this paper, the basis of the atmospheric instrumentation system assembled for use on board ORV Sagar Kanya for the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment is described along with some representative results. Wherever possible, Woods Hole's IMET recommendations for meteorological sensors for applications in the marine environment have been followed to keep our measurements in par with international standards. The sensors were tested during the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment and all sensors worked well. Velocity, humidity and temperature data have been successfully collected using fast sensors. It is shown that the component due to the ship's pitching motion can be removed from the measured vertical velocity by making use of an accelerometer. This makes it possible to calculate the surface fluxes by direct methods.

    • Atmospheric boundary layer characteristics during the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment

      G S Bhat S Ameenulla M Venkataramana K Sengupta

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      The atmospheric boundary layer characteristics observed during the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment are reported. Surface meteorological data were acquired continuously through an automatic weather monitoring system and manually every three hours. High resolution radiosondes were launched to obtain the vertical thermal structure of the atmosphere. The study area was convectively active, the SSTs were high, surface air was warm and moist, and the surface air moist static energy was among the highest observed over the tropical oceans. The mean sea air temperature difference was about 1.25‡C and the sea skin temperature was cooler than bucket SST by 0.5‡C. The atmospheric mixed layer was shallow, fluctuated in response to synoptic conditions from 100 m to 900 m with a mean around 500 m.

    • Inertial-Dissipation flux measurements over south Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot experiment

      M Venkataramana K Sengupta G S Bhat S Ameenulla J V S Raju

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      This paper describes measurement of air-sea parameters and estimation of sensible and latent heat fluxes by the “Inertial-Dissipation” technique over south Bay of Bengal. The data were collected on ORV Sagar Kanya during BOBMEX-Pilot cruise during the period 23rd October 1998 to 12th November 1998 over south Bay of Bengal. The fluxes are estimated using the data collected through fast response sensors namely Gill anemometer, Sonic anemometer and IR Hygrometer. In this paper the analyses carried out for two days, one relatively cloud free day on November 3rd and the other cloudy with rain on November 1st, are presented. Sea surface and air temperatures are higher on November 3rd than on November 1st. Sensible heat flux for both the days does not show any significant variation over the period of estimation, whereas latent heat flux is more for November 3rd than November 1st. An attempt is made to explain the variation of latent heat flux with a parameter called thermal stability on the vapor transfer from the water surface, which depends on wind speed and air to sea surface temperature difference.

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