Robert A Langel
Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 99 Issue 4 December 1990 pp 581-618
Among the first measurements made from near-Earth orbiting satellites were measurements of the magnetic field. The sources of that field lie both within the Earth, in its core and crust, and in the surrounding ionosphere and magnetosphere. This article summarizes some of the methodology and results for studies of the Earth’s mantle and crust. Mantle conductivity studies can be made either by studying signals impressed on the Earth from outside, e.g., the ionosphere or magnetosphere, or by studying signals originating in the core and transmitted through the mantle. Crustal field studies begin with a careful selection of the data and subsequent removal of core and external fields by some sort of filtering. Average maps from different local times sometimes differ, presumably due to the remaining presence of fields of external origin. Several techniques for further filtering are discussed. Where large-area aeromagnetic maps are available, crustal maps derived from satellite data can be compared with upward continued data. In general, the comparisons show agreement, with some differences, particularly in and near the auroral belts. The satellite data are further reduced by various methods of inverse and forward modelling, sometimes including reduction to the pole (RTP). These techniques are generally unstable at the equator. Common methods of stabilizing the inversions include principle components analysis and ridge regression. Because of the presence of the core field, the entire crustal contribution from the field is not known. Also, there is a basic nonuniqueness to the inverse solutions. Nevertheless, magnetizations that are interpretable can be derived.
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