• Ravindra P Singh

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) for ground-based mesospheric OH(6-2) and O2(0-1) intensity and temperature measurements

      Ravindra P Singh Duggirala Pallamraju

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      This paper describes the development of a new Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) which is capable of simultaneous measurements of OH(6-2) Meinel and O2(0-1) atmospheric band nightglow emission intensities. In this spectrographic technique, rotational line ratios are obtained to derive temperatures corresponding to the emission altitudes of 87 and 94 km. NIRIS has been commissioned for continuous operation from optical aeronomy observatory, Gurushikhar, Mount Abu (24.6N, 72.8E) since January 2013. NIRIS uses a diffraction grating of 1200 lines mm−1 and 1024×1024 pixels thermoelectrically cooled CCD camera and has a large field-of-view (FOV) of 80 along the slit orientation. The data analysis methodology adopted for the derivation of mesospheric temperatures is also described in detail. The observed NIRIS temperatures show good correspondence with satellite (SABER) derived temperatures and exhibit both tidal and gravity waves (GW) like features. From the time taken for phase propagation in the emission intensities between these two altitudes, vertical phase speed of gravity waves, $c_{z}$, is calculated and along with the coherent GW time period ‘$\tau$’, the vertical wavelength, $\lambda _{z}$, is obtained. Using large FOV observations from NIRIS, the meridional wavelengths, $\lambda _{y}$, are also calculated. We have used one year of data to study the possible cause(s) for the occurrences of mesospheric temperature inversions (MTIs). From the statistics obtained for 234 nights, it appears that in situ chemical heating is mainly responsible for the observed MTIs than the vertical propagation of the waves. Thus, this paper describes a novel near infrared imaging spectrograph, its working principle, data analysis method for deriving OH and O2 emission intensities and the corresponding rotational temperatures at these altitudes, derivation of gravity wave parameters ($\tau$, $c_{z}$, $\lambda _{z}$, and $\lambda _{y}$), and results on the statistical study of MTIs that exist in the earth’s mesospheric altitudes.

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