• Randhir Singh

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Estimation of surface latent heat fluxes from IRS-P4/MSMR satellite data

      Randhir Singh B Simon P C Joshi

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The brightness temperatures of the Microwave sensor MSMR (Multichannel Scanning Microwave Radiometer) launched in May 1999 onboard Indian Oceansat-1 IRS-P4 are used to develop a direct retrieval method for latent heat flux by multivariate regression technique. The MSMR measures the microwave radiances at 8 channels at frequencies of 6.6, 10.7, 18 and 21 GHz at both vertical and horizontal polarizations. It is found that the surface LHF (Latent Heat Flux) is sensitive to all the channels. The coefficients were derived using the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data of three months: July, September, November of 1999. The NCEP daily analyzed latent heat fluxes and brightness temperatures observed by MSMR were used to derive the coefficients. Validity of the derived coefficients was checked within situ observations over the Indian Ocean and with NCEP analyzed LHF for global points. The LHF derived directly from the MSMR brightness temperature (Tb) yielded an accuracy of 35 watt/m2. LHF was also computed by applying bulk formula using the geophysical parameters extracted from MSMR. In this case the errors were higher apparently due to the errors involved in derivation of the geophysical parameters.

    • Characteristics of low frequency oscillations of the atmosphere-ocean coupling

      Randhir Singh B Simon P C Joshi

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The low frequency oscillation of latent heat flux over the tropical oceans has been studied. The NCEP reanalyzed fields of wind and humidity alongwith Reynolds SST are used to compute the instantaneous as well as monthly mean surface latent heat fluxes (LHF) for the year 1999. The procedure of LHF computation is based on bulk method. Spectral analysis shows that significant energy is contained in Madden Julian Oscillation band in the winds, SST, moisture and in the latent heat flux. The global distribution of wind, humidity, SST and LHF oscillation on the time scale of 30–50 days are analyzed. Maximum amplitude of oscillation on this time scale in all the above mentioned parameters were found over the Indian Ocean. The fluctuation of surface wind speed and moisture controls the latent heat flux on this time scale. The fluctuation of SST on this time scale does not seem to be important over most of the oceans.

    • Artificial neural network approach for estimation of surface specific humidity and air temperature using multifrequency scanning microwave radiometer

      Randhir Singh B G Vasudevan P K Pal P C Joshi

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Microwave sensor MSMR (Multifrequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer) data onboard Oceansat-1 was used for retrieval of monthly averages of near surface specific humidity (Qa) and air temperature (Ta) by means of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The MSMR measures the microwave radiances in 8 channels at frequencies of 6.6, 10.7, 18 and 21 GHz for both vertical and horizontal polarizations.

      The artificial neural networks (ANN) technique is employed to find the transfer function relating the input MSMR observed brightness temperatures and output (Qa andTa) parameters. Input data consist of nearly 28 months (June 1999 – September 2001) of monthly averages of MSMR observed brightness temperature and surface marine observations ofQa andTa from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS).

      The performance of the algorithm is assessed with independent surface marine observations. The results indicate that the combination of MSMR observed brightness temperatures as input parameters provides reasonable estimates of monthly averaged surface parameters. The global root mean square (rms) differences are 1.0‡C and 1.1 g kg−1 for air temperature and surface specific humidity respectively.

    • Impact of bogus vortex for track and intensity prediction of tropical cyclone

      Randhir Singh P K Pal C M Kishtawal P C Joshi

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The initialization scheme designed to improve the representation of a tropical cyclone in the initial condition is tested during Orissa super cyclone (1999) over Bay of Bengal using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University — National Center for Atmospheric Research (Penn State — NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5). A series of numerical experiments are conducted to generate initial vortices by assimilating the bogus wind information into MM5. Wind speed and location of the tropical cyclone obtained from best track data are used to define maximum wind speed, and centre of the storm respectively, in the initial vortex. The initialization scheme produced an initial vortex that was well adapted to the forecast model and was much more realistic in size and intensity than the storm structure obtained from the NCEP analysis. Using this scheme, the 24-h, 48-h, and 72-h forecast errors for this case was 63, 58, and 46 km, respectively, compared with 120, 335, and 550 km for the non-vortex initialized case starting from the NCEP global analysis. When bogus vortices are introduced into initial conditions, the significant improvements in the storm intensity predictions are also seen.

      The impact of the vortex size on the structure of the initial vortex is also evaluated. We found that when the radius of maximum wind (RMW) of the specified vortex is smaller than that of which can be resolved by the model, the specified vortex is not well adapted by the model. In contrast, when the vortex is sufficiently large for it to be resolved on horizontal grid, but not so large to be unrealistic, more accurate storm structure is obtained.

    • Impact of additional surface observation network on short range weather forecast during summer monsoon 2008 over Indian subcontinent

      Prashant Kumar Randhir Singh P C Joshi P K Pal

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The three dimensional variational data assimilation scheme (3D-Var) is employed in the recently developed Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Assimilation experiments have been conducted to assess the impact of Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) surface observations (temperature and moisture) on the short range forecast over the Indian region. In this study, two experiments, CNT (without AWS observations) and EXP (with AWS observations) were made for 24-h forecast starting daily at 0000 UTC during July 2008. The impact of assimilation of AWS surface observations were assessed in comparison to the CNT experiment. The spatial distribution of the improvement parameter for temperature, relative humidity and wind speed from one month assimilation experiments demonstrated that for 24-h forecast, AWS observations provide valuable information. Assimilation of AWS observed temperature and relative humidity improved the analysis as well as 24-h forecast. The rainfall prediction has been improved due to the assimilation of AWS data, with the largest improvement seen over the Western Ghat and eastern India.

  • Journal of Earth System Science | News

© 2017-2019 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru.