• Ramesh Chander

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • On the exact evaluation of displacements within a semi-infinite solid due to a buried line source

      Satyesh K Bhandari Ramesh Chander

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      Garvin’s variant of the Cagniard technique has been used to evaluate exactly the displacements at points within a homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic, solid half space due to a buried explosive line source. The disturbance at any given time is confined to a region bounded by the free surface of the half space and theP wave front within it. The disturbance associated with the Rayleigh pulse affects a smaller region bounded by the free surface and the PP wave front.

    • New seismological results on the tectonics of the Garhwal Himalaya

      K N Khattri Ramesh Chander V K Gaur I Sarkar Sushilkumar

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      This paper reports data pertaining to 90 local earthquakes recorded during 1984–86 using seismographs in arrays of 5–7 stations deployed near the Main Central Thrust between Bhagirathi and Alakhananda valleys. The results which are also compared with 162 earthquakes recorded in 1979–80 provide a local view that refines and complements information recorded at distant seismic stations.

    • On the aftershock sequence of a 4.6 mb earthquake of the Garhwal Himalaya

      Irene Sarkar Ramesh Chander Dalia Chatterjee

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      Locally recorded data for eighteen aftershocks of a magnitude(mb) 4.6 earthquake occurring near Ukhimath in the Garhwal Himalaya were analysed. A master event technique was adopted to locate seventeen individual aftershock hypocentres relative to the hypocentre of the eighteenth aftershock chosen as the master event. The aftershock epicentres define an approximately 30 km2 rupture zone commensurate with the magnitude of the earthquake. The distribution of epicentres within this zone and the limited amount of first motion data support the view that a group of parallel, sub-vertical, sinistral strike-slip faults oriented N46°, transverse to the regional NW-SE trend of the Garhwal Himalaya, was involved in this seismic episode. Since the estimated focal depth range for aftershocks of this sequence is 3–14 km, we infer that this transverse fault zone extends through the upper crustal layer to a depth of 14 km at least.

    • A simulation of earthquake induced undrained pore pressure changes with bearing on some soil liquefaction observations following the 2001 Bhuj earthquake

      Irene Sarkar Ramesh Chander

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      The Bhuj earthquake of January 26th, 2001, induced wide spread liquefaction within the Kachch peninsula. It has been pointed out that inundation due to soil liquefaction was short lived in some parts than in others in the affected region. Several geological, seismological and hydrological factors would have cumulatively contributed to these observed changes.

      We simulate in this article, undrained or short-term change in pore pressure in a poroelastic half space, in response to a simplified model of the Bhuj earthquake source. We find that the regions of relatively shorter lived inundation due to soil liquefaction may fall in the region where pore pressure responsible for soil liquefaction attributable to strong ground shaking was counteracted by pore pressure changes due to undrained poroelastic effect and vice versa.

    • An integral-free expression for short-term changes in fault stability due to pore pressure induced when a point load is placed on the pervious boundary of a porous elastic half space containing a fault

      Ramesh Chander S K Tomar

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      A concentrated load with step-function time behaviour is placed normal to the planar, pervious boundary of a porous elastic half space (PEHS) with compressible constituents. A planar fault exists in the PEHS in such a way that the poroelastic behaviour of the medium is unhindered. We derive an approximate but integral-free expression for CFSCPP, i.e., changes in fault stability due to changes in pore pressure, at a point not too far off the line along which the load acts. But, in the interest of simplicity, the main discussion is focussed on a consideration of CFSCPP at a point 𝑃 located on the fault at depth 𝑧 directly beneath the load. It is convenient to introduce dimensionless time $t_D$ directly proportional to real time 𝑡. The constant of proportionality is 4c/z2, where 𝑐 is hydraulic diffusivity. The derived approximate expression gives results with an accuracy of greater than 99% for limited values of $t_D$ after the load is imposed. We learn from the derived expression that, for a given 𝑧, fault stability undergoes an initial sudden decrease commensurate with the undrained pore pressure induced in the PEHS. This is followed by a more gradual decrease in fault stability with increasing $t_D$ until a minimum is reached. The real time 𝑡 to minimum fault stability increases with 𝑧. The magnitude of CFSCPP decreases with 𝑧 as $z^{−2}$ for a given $t_D$ in the permissible range. The derived expression and the inferences based on it should be useful during earth science investigations of the possible hazards due to reactivation of a pre-existing shallow fault when a civil engineering project involving imposition of a heavy load on the earth’s surface is to be executed nearby. They should be useful also for investigations if a shallow earthquake occurs near such a project soon after its execution.

    • On a model simulating lack of hydraulic connection between a man-made reservoir and the volume of poroelastic rock hosting the focus of a post-impoundment earthquake

      Ramesh Chander S K Tomar

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      The idea that a direct hydraulic connection between a man-made reservoir and the foci of postimpoundment earthquakes may not exist at all sites is eminently credible on geological grounds. Our aim is to provide a simple earth model and related theory for use during investigations of earthquakes near new man-made reservoirs. We consider a uniform circular reservoir which rests on the top surface of a no-hydraulic-connection earth model (NHCEM). The model comprises a top elastic (E) layer, an intermediate poroelastic (P) layer, and a bottom elastic half space. The focus of a potential earthquake in the P layer is located directly under the reservoir. The E layer disrupts the hydraulic connection between the reservoir and the focus. Depth of water in the reservoir varies as H'+h cos(ωt). Expressions for reservoir-induced stresses and pore pressure in different layers of the NHCEM are obtained by solving the boundary-value problem invoking full coupling between mean normal stress and pore pressure in the P layer. As an application of the derived mathematical results, we have examined and found that earthquakes on 60° normal faults may occur in the P-layer of a selected NHCEM at epochs of low reservoir level if the reservoir lies mostly in the footwall of the fault. The exercise was motivated by observations of such earthquakes under the man-made Lake Mead after it was impounded

    • On assessing the inCuence of a newly impounded reservoir on a nearby normal fault using a simple three-dimensional model of subsurface geological heterogeneity


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      We assume that the subsurface at the site of a newly impounded reservoir has a small volume of rock with porous-elastic properties significantly different from those of the other rocks in the area. A normal fault passes through this rock volume. We adopt the following implications to quantify reservoir influence at different points of the fault in such a case. The reservoir is circular and of uniform depth. The small rock volume is spherical in shape and embedded in an otherwise homogeneous half space with values of porous-elastic properties in the range normally observed through laboratory measurements on rocks. We infer from calculated results that the reservoir will promote slip at low water level at points of the fault lying within the small rock volume if its diffusivity, and undrained and drained Poisson’s ratios are significantly lower than those of the other rocks at the site. The reservoir will promote slip on the normal fault at points outside the small rock volume at high water level.


      $\bullet$ A 3D model for reservoir promoted slip on a subsurface normal fault at low water is investigated.

      $\bullet$ The reservoir is circular. The fault cuts a porous-elastic (PE) sphere in a PE half-space.

      $\bullet$ The fault slips at low water at points in the sphere if PE half-space has nominal properties.

      $\bullet$ PE sphere has low diffusivity and low undrained and drained Poisson’s ratios.

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