• Raj Kumar

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • A study on the sensitivity of the radar scattering coefficient to oceanic winds

      Abhijit Sarkar Raj Kumar

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      Sensitivity of the radar scattering coefficient to the oceanic wind vector in the midangular range for frequencies from L- to Ku- band is studied. This is based on computations of scattering coefficient via the two-scale scattering theory employing a semi-empirical model for the ocean spectrum suggested by Fung and Lee and the slope distribution by Cox and Munk. Higher frequency and incident angles of over 45 degrees seem to yield better wind sensitivity.

    • Quasi-specular sea scatter with modified reflection coefficient

      Raj Kumar Abhijit Sarkar

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      The paper deals with the relationship between the sea surface wind speed (U) and the backscattering coefficient (σ0) for microwave frequencies and quasi specular range of angles. Valenzuela’s effective reflection coefficient based on the theory of scattering of electromagnetic waves from rought dielectric surfaces has been introduced in the expression of backscattering coefficient and the final result compared with the σ0-U relationship derived fromSEASAT scatterometer and concurrent sea truth data.

    • Selection of optimum frequency of a wind scatterometer

      Abhijit Sarkar Raj Kumar Mannil Mohan

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      The problem of selecting the optimum operating frequency of a scatterometer, used for remote sensing of sea surface wind speed has been addressed by applying the criteria of maximum sensitivity of backscattering coefficient to wind speed as well as its correlation with wind speed. The backscattering coefficient values for sea surface were computed by the two-scale scattering theory. To compute the atmospheric transmittance, 753 clear sky atmospheres over Indian Ocean were used. While the correlation coefficient was uniform (0.94) throughout the frequency range of 1 to 30GHz, only frequencies above 5GHz were found sensitive enough to yield a wind speed accuracy of ±2msec−1 and better, the accuracy improving with frequency.

    • Selection of optimum frequency of a wind scatterometer

      Abhijit Sarkar Raj Kumar Mannil Mohan

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    • Static deformation of two welded half-spaces due to very long strike-slip dislocations

      Raj Kumar Sharma Nat Ram Garg Kuldip Singh

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      Closed form analytic expressions for displacement and stresses at any point of either of the two homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-spaces in welded contact due to very long strike-slip dislocations are obtained. Both cases of vertical and horizontal strike-slip dislocations are discussed in detail. Variation of the displacement with horizontal distance from the fault and with vertical distance from the interface for a vertical strike-slip fault is studied numerically.

    • Deformation of an elastic layer coupling in different ways to a base due to a very long vertical strike-slip dislocation

      Nat Ram Garg Raj Kumar Sharma

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      The closed-form analytic expressions for the displacement and stresses at any point of an elastic layer lying over a base due to a very long vertical strike-slip dislocation are obtained. The interface between the layer and the base is assumed to be either ‘smooth-rigid’ or ‘rough-rigid’ or ‘welded’. The variations of displacement and stresses with the horizontal distance from the fault for different types of coupling of the layer with the base have been studied. It is found that the displacement for ‘welded interface’ lies between the displacements due to ‘smooth rigid’ and ‘rough-rigid’ interfaces for different positions of the observer and different values of the ratio of rigidities of the layer and half-space.

    • An analytical source function for a coupled hybrid wave model

      M Mohan Abhijit Sarkar Raj Kumar

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      An analytical form for the source function is formulated by comparing the fetch-limited approximation of the Ocean Wave Transport equation and the empirical equation for the fetch-dependent wave forecast nomograms. The source function thus generated has been utilised in the numerical model based on Toba’s formulation of wave transport equation and tested for the seas around the Indian subcontinent (5°S to 25°N latitude; 45°E to 100°E longitude). The grid averaged hindcast wave heights are found to be moderately matching with the GEOSAT altimeter measured significant wave heights of the 1987–1989 period, particularly for waves higher than 1 meter.

    • Wave hindcast experiments in the Indian Ocean using MIKE 21 SW model

      P G Remya Raj Kumar Sujit Basu Abhijit Sarkar

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      Wave prediction and hindcast studies are important in ocean engineering, coastal infrastructure development and management. In view of sparse and infrequent in-situ observations, model derived hindcast wave data can be used for the assessment of wave climate in offshore and coastal areas. In the present study, MIKE 21 SW Model has been used to carry out wave hindcast experiments in the Indian Ocean. Model runs have been made for the year 2005 using QuickSCAT scatterometer winds blended with ECMWF model winds. In order to study the impact of southern ocean swells, the model has been run in two different domains, with the southern boundary being shifted far south for the Domain 60S model. The model simulated wave parameters have been validated by comparing with buoy and altimeter data and various statistical yardsticks have been employed to quantify the validation. Possible reason for the poorer performance of the model in the Arabian Sea has also been pointed out.

    • Low level cloud motion vectors from Kalpana-1 visible images

      Inderpreet Kaur S K Deb C M Kishtawal P K Pal Raj Kumar

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      Till now low-level winds were retrieved using Kalpana-1 infrared (IR) images only. In this paper, an attempt has been made to retrieve low-level cloud motion vectors using Kalpana-1 visible (VIS) images at every half an hour. The VIS channel provides better detection of low level clouds, which remain obscure in thermal IR images due to poor thermal contrast. The tracers are taken to be 15 × 15 pixel templates and hence each wind corresponds to about 120km × 120km at sub-satellite point. Multiplet based wind retrieval technique is followed for VIS wind derivation. However, for height assignment of VIS winds, collocated IR image is used. Due to better contrast between cloud and ocean surface, the low level atmospheric flow is captured better as compared to IR winds. The validation of the derived VIS winds is done with Global Forecast System (GFS) model winds and Oceansat-II scatterometer (OSCAT) winds.

    • An assessment of wind forcing impact on a spectral wave model for the Indian Ocean

      P G Remya Raj Kumar Sujit Basu

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      The focus of the present study is the assessment of the impact of wind forcing on the spectral wave model MIKE 21 SW in the Indian Ocean region. Three different wind fields, namely the ECMWF analyzed winds, the ECMWF blended winds, and the NCEP blended winds have been used to drive the model. The wave model results have been compared with in-situ observations and satellite altimeter data. This study also evaluated the performance of the wind products during local phenomenon like sea breeze, since it has a significant impact on the wave prediction in the Indian coastal region. Hence we explored the possibility of studying the impact of diurnal variation of winds on coastal waves using different wind fields. An analysis of the model performance has also been made during high wind conditions with the inference that blended winds generate more realistic wave fields in the high wind conditions and are able to produce the growth and decay of waves more realistically.

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