• R Nigam

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean proloculus diameter of benthic foraminiferal speciesEpistominella exigua in sub-surface sediments from distal Bay of Bengal fan

      R Saraswat R Nigam Lea Barreto

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      Temporal variation in abundance and mean proloculus diameter of the benthic foraminiferal speciesEpistominella exigua has been reconstructed over the last ∼ 50,000 yr BP, from a core collected from the distal Bay of Bengal fan, to assess its potential application in palaeoceanographic reconstruction studies. The down-core variation shows significant change in abundance ofE. exigua during the last ∼ 50,000 yr BP. In view of the present day abundance of this species from areas with strong seasonal organic matter supply, we conclude that at ∼ 7, ∼ 22, ∼ 33 and ∼ 46kyr BP, strong seasonality prevailed in the distal Bay of Bengal fan, probably indicating either strong or prolonged north-east monsoon or weakened south-west monsoon. For the first time, a strong correlation is observed in abundance and mean proloculus diameter ofE. exigua. Based on coherent variation in mean proloculus diameter and abundance, it is postulated that mean proloculus diameter can also be used to infer increased seasonality in organic matter production, thus variation in strength or duration of monsoon. Thus, this study establishes that the down-core variation in the abundance and mean proloculus diameter ofEpistominella exigua can be used to infer past climatic variations from the distal Bay of Bengal fan.

    • Development of regional wheat VI-LAI models using Resourcesat-1 AWiFS data

      Sasmita Chaurasia R Nigam B K Bhattacharya V N Sridhar K Mallick S P Vyas N K Patel J Mukherjee Chander Shekhar Dhiraj Kumar K R P Singh G D Bairagi N L Purohit J S Parihar

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      The time of forcing of spatial LAI to crop models at single or multiple stages is important to simulate crop biomass and yield in varying agro-climatic conditions and scales. The high temporal resolution (5-day) by Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) on-board Resourcesat-1 Satellite IRS-P6 with 56 m spatial resolution and large swath (740 km) has substantially increased the availability of regional clear sky optical remote sensing data. The present study aimed at developing empirical vegetation index VI-LAI models for wheat using AWiFS optical data in four bands and in-situ measurements sampled over five different agro-climatic regions (ACRs) during 2005–2006 followed by validation during 2006–2007. While nonlinear relations exist for all the three normalized indices such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI) and Green NDVI, linear relation was the best fit for ratio vegetation index (RVI). Both NDVI and RVI models generally showed better correlation ranges (0.65–0.84 for NDVI and 0.37–0.76 for RVI) than other indices. The common NDVI-LAI model was found to produce lower root mean square errors (RMSE) between 0.5 and 1.1 from pooled model than those between 0.5 and 1.32 from regional models. The rate of substantial increase in errors from NDVILAI model (RMSE of modelled LAI: 0.85 to 1.28) as compared to RVI-LAI model (RMSE of modeled LAI: 1.12 to 1.17) at LAI greater than 3, than below 3 revealed the early saturation of NDVI than RVI. It is therefore recommended that LAI estimates can be used to force crop simulation model up to early vegetative stage based on NDVI and maximum vegetative to reproductive stages based on RVI.

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