Pterospermumocarpon (Type: P. kalviwadiensis), a new morphogenus of fossil fruits showing resemblance with fruits of extant Pterospermum Schreb. (Malvaceae s.l.), is described from the Sindhudurg Formation (Miocene) at the Kalviwadi Village, Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra, India. Diagnostic feature of the fossil taxon is the dehiscent pentalocular capsule with five distinct sutures and imprints of winged seedlike structures in the locules. Recent modifications in the systematics of the Malvales, their fossil record, and the distribution and migration of Pterospermum and other malvalean taxa in the context of the Indian subcontinent are discussed.