R K Gaur
Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 108 Issue 1 March 1999 pp 33-48
The Samchampi-Samteran alkaline igneous complex (SAC) is a near circular, plug-like body approximately 12 km2 area and is emplaced into the Precambrian gneissic terrain of the Karbi Anglong district of Assam. The host rocks, which are exposed in immediate vicinity of the intrusion, comprise granite gneiss, migmatite, granodiorite, amphibolite, pegmatite and quartz veins.
The SAC is composed of a wide variety of lithologies identified as syenitic fenite, magnetite ± perovskite ± apatite rock, alkali pyroxenite, ijolite-melteigite, carbonatite, nepheline syenite with leucocratic and mesocratic variants, phonolite, volcanic tuff, phosphatic rock and chert breccia.
The magnetite ± perovskite ± apatite rock was generated as a cumulus phase owing to the partitioning of Ti, Fe at a shallow level magma chamber (not evolved DI = O1). The highly alkaline hydrous fluid activity indicated by the presence of strongly alkalic minerals in carbonatites and associated alkaline rocks suggests that the composition of original melt was more alkalic than those now found and represent a silica undersaturated ultramafic rock of carbonated olivine-poor nephelinite which splits with falling temperature into two immiscible fractions—one ultimately crystallises as alkali pyroxenite/ijolite and the other as carbonatite. The spatial distribution of varied lithotypes of SAC and their genetic relationships suggests that the silicate and carbonate melts, produced through liquid immiscibility, during ascent generated into an array of lithotypes and also reaction with the country rocks by alkali emanations produced fenitic aureoles (nephelinisation process). Isotopic studies (δ18O and δ13C) on carbonatites of Samchampi have indicated that the δ13C of the source magma is related to contamination from recycled carbon.