• Priti Sharma

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Assimilation of INSAT-3D imager water vapour clear sky brightness temperature in the NCMRWF’s assimilation and forecast system

      Indira Rani S Ruth Taylor Priti Sharma Bushair M T Buddhi Prakash Jangid John P George Rajagopal E N

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      This paper describes the direct assimilation of water vapour (WV) clear sky brightness temperatures (CSBTs) from the INSAT-3D imager in the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) Unified Model (NCUM) assimilation and forecast system. INSAT-3D imager WV CSBTs show a systematic bias of 2–3 K compared to the data simulated from the model first guess fields in the pre-assimilation study. The bias in the INSAT-3D imager WV CSBTs is removed using a statistical bias correction prior to assimilation. The impact of INSAT-3D imager WV channel CSBTs is investigated through different approaches: (i) single observation experiments and (ii) global assimilation experiments using the hybrid-four-dimensional variational technique. Single observation experiments of channels of the same frequency from different instruments like the INSAT-3D imager and sounder, and the Meteosat visible and infrared imager (MVIRI) onboard Meteosat-7, show the INSAT-3D imager and MVIRI WV channels have a similar impact on the analysis increment. Global assimilation clearly shows the positive impact of the INSAT-3D imager WV CSBTs on the humidity and upper tropospheric wind fields, whereas the impact on the temperature field, particularly over the tropics, is neutral. Validation of model forecasted parameters with the in situ radio sonde observations also showed the positive impact of assimilation on the humidity and wind fields. INSAT-3D imager WV CSBTs have been assimilated operationally in NCUM since August 2018.

    • Assimilation of individual components of radiosonde winds: An investigation to assess the impact of single-component winds from space-borne measurements on NWP


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      Wind observations are critical for the better atmospheric analysis for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), particularly over the tropics. High-resolution direct wind observations are essential for defining smaller scales and deeper atmospheric structures. Recently launched Aeolus satellite delivers wind profiles that mostly satisfy these requirements, suitable for NWP assimilation. The main product from Aeolus is the horizontally projected Line of Sight wind component, a single component of wind, approximately zonal in nature over the tropics and more meridional over the Polar region, and the main limitation of this observation. Observing system experiments are conducted with the assimilation of individual components of radiosonde and pilot balloon winds to assess the impact of a single component of wind compared to the assimilation of full wind vector in the NCMRWF global assimilation and forecast system. Denial of the zonal component of wind in the assimilation system produced a larger observation increment (observation – model background) in the meridional wind than the full vector assimilation. In contrast, the observation increment of the zonal wind remains nearly the same, even after removing the meridional wind component from the assimilation system. Assimilation of both zonal and meridional components produced changes in the analysis fields of various meteorological variables; however, the zonal component plays a significant role in the tropics. Both wind components play an important role in controlling the humidity field, whereas only zonal components of wind impact the temperature field in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Though the full vector wind assimilation produces a larger impact in the forecast fields of various meteorological variables, the zonal component has more impact than the meridional component. Verification of analysis and forecast wind against the satellite-derived atmospheric motion vectors clearly show the importance of both the horizontal components of winds in the lower troposphere. In contrast, the zonal component of wind alone has a high impact on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

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