• Pravin K Gupta

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Fast computation of Hankel Transform using orthonormal exponential approximation of complex kernel function

      Pravin K Gupta Sri Niwas Neeta Chaudhary

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      The computation of electromagnetic (EM) fields, for 1-D layered earth model, requires evaluation of Hankel Transform (HT) of the EM kernel function. The digital filtering is the most widely used technique to evaluate HT integrals. However, it has some obvious shortcomings. We present an alternative scheme, based on an orthonormal exponential approximation of the kernel function, for evaluating HT integrals. This approximation of the kernel function was chosen because the analytical solution of HT of an exponential function is readily available in literature. This expansion reduces the integral to a simple algebraic sum. The implementation of such a scheme requires that the weights and the exponents of the exponential function be estimated. The exponents were estimated through a guided search algorithm while the weights were obtained using Marquardt matrix inversion method. The algorithm was tested on analytical HT pairs available in literature. The results are compared with those obtained using the digital filtering technique with Anderson filters. The field curves for four types (A-, K-, H-and Q-type) of 3-layer earth models are generated using the present scheme and compared with the corresponding curves obtained using the Anderson sc heme. It is concluded that the present scheme is more accurate than the Anderson scheme

    • Efficient two-dimensional magnetotellurics modelling using implicitly restarted Lanczos method

      Krishna Kumar Pravin K Gupta Sri Niwas

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      This paper presents an efficient algorithm, FDA2DMT (Free Decay Analysis for 2D Magnetotellurics (MT)), based on eigenmode approach to solve the relevant partial differential equation, for forward computation of two-dimensional (2D) responses. The main advantage of this approach lies in the fact that only a small subset of eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors are required for satisfactory results. This small subset (pre-specified number) of eigenmodes are obtained using shift and invert implementation of Implicitly Restarted Lanczos Method (IRLM). It has been established by experimentation that only 15–20% smallest eigenvalue and corresponding eigenvectors are sufficient to secure the acceptable accuracy. Once the single frequency response is computed using eigenmode approach, the responses for subsequent frequencies can be obtained in negligible time. Experiment design results for validation of FDA2DMT are presented by considering two synthetic models from COMMEMI report, Brewitt-Taylor and Weaver (1976) model and a field data based model from Garhwal Himalaya.

    • Geoelectric structure estimated from magnetotelluric data from the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

      Rohit Miglani M Shahrukh M Israil Pravin K Gupta S K Varshney Sokolova Elena

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      Geoelectric strike and resistivity structure of the crust have been estimated from 37 magnetotelluric (MT) data sites along a profile from Roorkee to Gangotri in Uttarakhand Himalaya. Impedance decomposition schemes based on Bahr’s, Groom Bailey and Phase tensor were implemented in a MATLAB code for the average strike estimation. Geoelectric strike direction varies with period as well as in different lithotectonic units along the profile. In the period band from 1 to 100 s average geoelectric strike in the southern end of the profile (Indo-Gangetic Plains) is N79°W, which is slightly rotated to the north in the Lesser Himalayan region and becomes N68°W whereas it is N81°W in the Higher Himalayan region. However, average strike is stabilized to N77°W for the entire profile in the long period band (100–1000 s). Geoelectrical structure of the crust has been obtained along the profile by 2D inversion of MT data. Major features of 2D resistivity model are: (i) southern part of the model is a low resistivity (> 50 𝛺m) zone at shallow depth (5–7 km) representing the loose sediments of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), whose thickness increases in the south; (ii) highly resistive (>1000 𝛺m) layer below the IGP sediments is the basement rock, representing the resistivity of the top of the subducting Indian Plate; (iii) the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and the Main Central Thrust (MCT) zones can be seen in the electrical image. However, the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) could not be resolved and (iv) a low resistivity (> 10 𝛺m) feature in the MCT zone extending to the depth of 30 km is delineated. This low resistivity could be due to fluid-filled fractured rock matrix or partial melt zone. Hypocenters of many earthquakes are concentrated along the boundary of this low resistivity zone and relatively high resistivity blocks around it. The resulted model supports flat-ramp-flat geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust along which the Indian Plate is subducting.

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