Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Variations of trace gases over the Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon

      I A Girach Narendra Ojha Prabha R Nair Yogesh K Tiwari K Ravi Kumar

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      In situ measurements of near-surface ozone (O₃), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (CH₄) were carried out over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) as a part of the Continental Tropical Convergence Zone (CTCZ) campaign during the summer monsoon season of 2009. O₃, CO and CH₄ mixing ratios varied in the ranges of 8–54 ppbv, 50–200 ppbv and 1.57–2.15 ppmv, respectively during 16 July–17 August 2009. The spatial distribution of mean tropospheric O₃ from satellite retrievals is found to be similar to that in surfaceO₃ observations, with higher levels over coastal and northern BoB as compared to central BoB. The comparison of in situ measurements with the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition & Climate (MACC) global reanalysis shows that MACC simulations reproduce the observations with small mean biases of1.6 ppbv, –2.6 ppbv and 0.07 ppmv for O₃, CO and CH4, respectively. The analysis of diurnal variation of O₃ based on observations and the simulations from Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) at a stationary point over the BoB did not show a net photochemical build up during daytime. Satellite retrievals show limitations in capturing CH₄ variations as measured by in situ sample analysis highlighting the need of more shipborne in situ measurements of trace gases over thisregion during monsoon.

    • Radiative characteristics of near-surface aerosols at a tropical site: An estimation based on concurrent measurements of their physico-chemical characteristics


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      This study is an attempt to estimate the radiative characteristics of aerosols, namely, the scattering coefficient ($\beta_{\rm{sc}}$), absorption coefficient ($\beta_{\rm{ab}}$), extinction coefficient ($\beta_{\rm{ex}}$), single scattering albedo ($\omega$) and the phase function P($\theta$), on a seasonal basis, incorporating the concurrent measurements of aerosol mass loading, size distribution and chemical composition at the tropical coastal site, Thiruvananthapuram. The software package Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) has been made use for the estimation of the radiative parameters. This paper presents the seasonal features of aerosol chemical composition and their source characteristics also. Along with this, the association between size-resolved number density of aerosols and their chemical characteristics were also investigated through correlation analysis. The location is significantly influenced by human activities as seen from the dominance of the anthropogenic component which is highest in winter (22%) with comparable values in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon and minimum in monsoon (13%). The sea-salt contribution is found to peak in monsoon ($\sim$40%) and attain a minimum in winter. The source characterization using principal component analysis along with back-trajectory analysis showed the seasonally changing mixed aerosol sources over the region. Accordingly, the radiative properties of aerosols also exhibit significant seasonal variations. $\beta_{\rm{sc}}$ varied from 0.04 to 0.14 km$^{-1}$ and $\beta_{\rm{ab}}$ between 0.01 and 0.05 km$^{-1}$ over a year. The single-scattering albedo exhibited significant seasonal differences being $\sim$0.71 for winter and $\sim$0.89 (0.55 $\mu$m) for monsoon season, indicating the presence of more absorbing aerosols in winter.

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