• P S Salvekar

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Layered clouds in the Indian monsoon region

      M K Rama Varma Raja G C Asnani P S Salvekar A R Jain D Narayana Rao S Venkoba Rao P Kishore M Hareesh

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      Contrary to the prevalent belief that tropical region is characterized by convective clouds rather than by layer clouds, we have suggested that deep convective clouds occur on meso-scale, but layer clouds occur on larger synoptic-scale with a relatively small region of deep convective clouds. Sustenance of deep convective clouds is inhibited by the presence of inertio-gravity waves, which have alternating layers of upward and downward motion in the vertical. We have also shown that inertio-gravity waves generate regions of relatively strong horizontal velocity, vertically separated by layers of relatively weak horizontal velocity. Layers of strong horizontal velocity are created by inertio-gravity wave system through convergence of vertical flux of horizontal momentum. We have also suggested that horizontal convergence/divergence of moisture flux is generated by inertio-gravity waves, giving rise to vertically alternating layers of high/low humidity, and visible or sub-visible clouds. Layers of high humidity become layers of strong radar reflectivity at frequency of 53 MHz at which MST Radar at Gadanki, near Tirupati, India, operates. These observations, more than 2,50,000 in number, for vertical grid points, spread over all the months of the year, have helped us, among other observations, to arrive at these conclusions. Further, the analysis suggests that the main source of strong MST radar reflectivity is not mechanical turbulence as is commonly believed.

    • North Indian Ocean warming and sea level rise in an OGCM

      Bijoy Thompson C Gnanaseelan Anant Parekh P S Salvekar

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      The variability in the long-term temperature and sea level over the north Indian Ocean during the period 1958–2000 has been investigated using an Ocean General Circulation Model, Modular Ocean Model version 4. The model simulated fields are compared with the sea level observations from tide-gauges, Topex/Poseidon (T/P) satellite, in situ temperature profile observations from WHOI moored buoy and sea surface temperature (SST) observations from DS1, DS3 and DS4 moored buoys. It is seen that the long (6–8 years) warming episodes in the SST over the north Indian Ocean are followed by short episodes (2–3 years) of cooling. The model temperature and sea level anomaly over the north Indian Ocean show an increasing trend in the study period. The model thermocline heat content per unit area shows a linear increasing trend (from 1958–2000) at the rate of 0.0018 × 1011J/m2 per year for north Indian Ocean. North Indian Ocean sea level anomaly (thermosteric component) also shows a linear increasing trend of 0.31mm/year during 1958–2000.

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