P N Shukla
Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 92 Issue 3 November 1983 pp 255-260
Vertical profiles of137Cs and210Pb have been determined in a 9 m column of ice from accumulation zone of Changme-Khangpu glacier in north Sikkim valley.137Cs activity varies from 4 to 22 dpm/ L. In many samples210Pb occurs at a level of 20 to 65 dpm/ L which is much higher than the expected fallout value.137Cs and210Pb activities correlate well with each other but not with the dust content. Possibility of210Pb production in the nuclear explosions is discussed. Several peaks appear in the depth profile of137Cs and210Pb which can be matched with Chinese atmospheric nuclear explosions with some phase difference if a uniform ice accumulation rate of 0.7 m per year is assumed since 1969.
Volume 110 Issue 2 June 2001 pp 103-110
We report here an unusually high concentration of iridium in some alkali basalts and alkaline rocks of Deccan region having an age of about 65Ma, similar to the age of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The alkali basalts of Anjar, in the western periphery of Deccan province, have iridium concentration as high as 178pg/g whereas the alkaline rocks and basalts associated with the Amba Dongar carbonatite complex have concentrations ranging between 8 and 80 pg/g. Some of these values are more than an order of magnitude higher than the concentration in the tholeiitic basalts of Deccan, indicating the significance of alkaline magmatism in the iridium inventory at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Despite higher concentration, their contribution to the global inventory of iridium in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clays remains small. The concentration of iridium in fluorites from Amba Dongar was found to be <30 pg/g indicating that iridium is not incorporated during their formation in hydrothermal activity.
Volume 110 Issue 2 June 2001 pp 111-132
Chemical analysis of nine Deccan flow basalts at Anjar, Kutch, western India, indicates that all, except the uppermost flow F-9, are alkaline. In their major and trace element composition, the alkali basalts resemble Ocean island basalts (OIB). Similarities of many diagnostic trace element ratios (e.g. Sm/Nd, Ba/Nb,Y/Nb and Zr/Nb) are similar to those found in the Réunion Island basalts. The uppermost basalt is tholeiitic and chemically resembles the least contaminated Deccan basalt (Ambenali type). The Anjar basalts have iridium concentration ranging between 2 and 178 pg/g. Some of these values are higher by about an order of magnitude compared to the Ir concentration in other basalts of the Deccan. A synthesis of chemical, palaeomagnetic and geochronologic data enables us to construct a chemical and magnetic stratigraphy for these flows.
The three flows below the iridium enriched intertrappean bed (IT III) show normal magnetic polarity whereas all except one of the upper basalts show reversed magnetic polarity. The sequence seems to have started in polarity zones 31N and probably continued up to 28R or 27R. The results presented here support the view that Deccan volcanism in Kutch occurred on a time span of a few million years.
Volume 111 Issue 4 December 2002 pp 489-491
Volume 113 Issue 4 December 2004 pp 519-531
Carbonatites are believed to have crystallized either from mantle-derived primary carbonate magmas or from secondary melts derived from carbonated silicate magmas through liquid immiscibility or from residual melts of fractional crystallization of silicate magmas. Although the observed coexistence of carbonatites and alkaline silicate rocks in most complexes, their coeval emplacement in many, and overlapping initial87Sr/86Sr and143Nd/144Nd ratios are supportive of their cogenesis; there have been few efforts to devise a quantitative method to identify the magmatic processes. In the present study we have made an attempt to accomplish this by modeling the trace element contents of carbonatites and coeval alkaline silicate rocks of Amba Dongar complex, India. Trace element data suggest that the carbonatites and alkaline silicate rocks of this complex are products of fractional crystallization of two separate parental melts. Using the available silicate melt-carbonate melt partition coefficients for various trace elements, and the observed data from carbonatites, we have tried to simulate trace element distribution pattern for the parental silicate melt. The results of the modeling not only support the hypothesis of silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility for the evolution of Amba Dongar but also establish a procedure to test the above hypothesis in such complexes.
Volume 114 Issue 2 April 2005 pp 111-124
We report the presence of a 3–5 cm thick loose fragmental layer in the Siliceous Earth at Matti ka Gol in the Barmer basin of Rajasthan. Petrographic, chemical and mineralogical study reveals the presence of abundant volcanic debris such as glass shards, agglutinates, hollow spheroids, kinked biotites, feldspars showing oscillatory zoning, olivines, ilmenite and native iron. The presence of similar particles in the whole section suggests that the Siliceous Earth is a volcanic ash. Stratigraphic correlation, palynological and microvertebrate data suggest that the Siliceous Earth may have deposited over a short span of time during the Upper Cretaceous to Lower Palaeocene. In view of the possibility that this section may contain K/T impact debris, we looked for grains having impact signatures. Some patches of the Siliceous Earth of Bariyara show the presence of Ni-rich (> 0.5%) vesicular glasses, sanidine spherules, magnesioferrite crystals, soot, etc., but because of their low abundance, it is not possible to establish if they are volcanic, micrometeorite ablation products or a part of the K/T impact ejecta.