• P N Mahajan

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Satellite-observed upwelled region and prime eddy off Somali coast during Monex-79

      P N Mahajan

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      An upwelled region as seen through satellite imagery off the Somali coast is compared with sea surface temperature during summer Monex-79. The relationship between satellite-derived low-level cloud drift winds and the sea-surface temperature is studied. Cloudiness associated with a prime eddy off the Somali coast is also studied. It is observed that the upwelled region has a unique crescent shape and reflects the sea-surface temperature that is driven by low-level strong winds. The prime eddy, as observed through a satellite imagery, shows that low cloud convection tends to be greater over the warm waters of the prime eddy, and the upwelled cold water tends to encircle the eddy leading to the identification of its outer boundary.

    • Use of satellite data for radiative energy budget study of Indian summer monsoon

      P N Mahajan G R Chinthalu S Rajamani

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      In this paper satellite-derived radiative energy budget such as shortwave radiative heating, longwave radiative heating and net radiation balance have been studied for the post-onset phase of summer monsoon 1979. Since clouds play an important role in determining diabatic heating field as well as being a reflection of status of the monsoon itself, the day to day evolution of clouds from TIROS-N satellite has been made. Satellite-derived radiative heating rates from surface to 100 hPa were computed for each 100 hPa thickness layer. These heating rates were then compared with the observed latitudinal distribution of total radiative heating rates over the domain of the study.

      From the results of our study it was found that the characteristic features such as net radiative heating rates of the order of 0.2°C/day at upper tropospheric layer (100–200 hPa) and cooling throughout the lower tropospheric layers with relatively less cooling between 500–700 hPa layer observed in a case of satellite-derived radiative energy budget agree well with the characteristic features of observational radiative energy budget over the domain of the study. Therefore, it is suggested that radiative energy budget derived from satellite observations can be used with great potential and confidence for the evolution of the complete life cycle of the monsoon over the Indian region for different years.

    • Utility of DMSP-SSM/I for integrated water vapour over the Indian seas

      P N Mahajan

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      Recent algorithms for Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (DMSP-SSM/I) satellite data are used for estimating integrated water vapour over the Indian seas. Integrated water vapour obtained from these algorithms is compared with that derived from radiosonde observations at Minicoy and Port Blair islands. Algorithm-3 of Schlussel and Emery (1990) performed best. On the basis of this algorithm, distribution of integrated water vapour is determined during the monsoon depression (22nd–27th July, 1992) that formed over the Bay of Bengal.

    • Proper depiction of monsoon depression through IRS-P4 MSMR

      P N Mahajan R M Khaladkar S G Narkhedkar Sathy Nair P C Joshi P K Pal

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      In this paper, daily variations of satellite-derived geophysical parameters such as integrated water vapour (IWV), cloud liquid water content (CLW), sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface wind speed (SSW) have been studied for a case of monsoon depression that formed over the Bay of Bengal during 19th-24th August 2000. For this purpose, IRS P4 MSMR satellite data have been utilized over the domain equator — 25‡N and 40‡-100‡E. An integrated approach of satellite data obtained from IRS-P4, METEOSAT-5 and INSAT was made for getting a signal for the development of monsoon depression over the Indian region. Variations in deep convective activity obtained through visible, infrared and OLR data at 06 UTC was thoroughly analyzed for the complete life cycle of monsoon depression. Geophysical parameters obtained through IRS-P4 satellite data were compared with vorticity, convergence and divergence at 850 and 200 hPa levels generated through cloud motion vectors (CMVs) and water vapour wind vectors (WVWVs) obtained from METEOSAT-5 satellite. This comparison was made for finding proper consistency of geophysical parameters with dynamical aspects of major convective activity of the depression.

      From the results of this study it is revealed that there was strengthening of sea surface winds to the south of low-pressure area prior to the formation of depression. This indicated the possibility of increase in cyclonic vorticity in the lower troposphere. Hence, wind field at 850 hPa with satellite input of CMVs in objective analysis of wind field using optimum interpolation (OI) scheme was computed. Maximum cyclonic vorticity field at 850 hPa was obtained in the region of depression just one day before its formation. Similarly, with the same procedure maximum anticyclonic vorticity was observed at 200 hPa with WVWVs input. Consistent convergence and divergence at 850 and 200 hPa was noticed with respect to these vorticities. In association with these developments, we could get lowest values of OLR (120 W/m2 ) associated with major convective activity that was consistent with the maximum values of integrated water vapour (6-8gm/cm2) and cloud liquid water content (50-60 mg/cm2 ) persisting particularly in the southwest sector of the monsoon depression.

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