• P K Kunhikrishnan

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Observations of the atmospheric surface layer parameters over a semi arid region during the solar eclipse of August 11th, 1999

      Praveena Krishnan P K Kunhikrishnan S Muraleedharan Nair Sudha Ravindran Radhika Ramachandran D B Subrahamanyam M Venkata Ramana

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      This paper discusses the observations of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL) parameters during the solar eclipse of August 11th, 1999. Intensive surface layer experiments were conducted at Ahmedabad (23‡21′N, 72‡36′E), the western part of India, which was close to the totality path. This rare event provided by nature is utilised to document the surface layer effects during the eclipse period using measurements of high frequency fluctuations of temperature, tri-axial wind components as well as mean parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and subsoil temperature. Analysis showed that during the eclipse period, the turbulence parameters were affected leading to the suppression of the turbulence process, the main dynamic process in the atmospheric boundary layer, while the mean parameters showed variations within the natural variability of the observational period. The spectra of the wind components and temperature indicated decrease in spectral power by one order in magnitude during the eclipse period. The rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy is found to decrease by more than one order during the eclipse period. The stability parameter showed a change from unstable to stable condition during the period of eclipse and back to unstable condition by the end of eclipse

    • Aircraft measurements of aerosol black carbon from a coastal location in the north-east part of peninsular India during ICARB

      S Suresh Babu S K Satheesh K Krishna Moorthy C B S Dutt Vijayakumar S Nair Denny P Alappattu P K Kunhikrishnan

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      During the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) over India, high-resolution airborne measurements of the altitude profiles of the mass concentrations (MB) of aerosol black carbon (BC) were made off Bhubaneswar (BBR, 85.82°E, 20.25°N), over northwest Bay of Bengal, in the altitude region upto 3 km. Such high-resolution measurements of altitude profiles of aerosols are done for the first time over India. The profiles showed a near-steady vertical distribution of MB modulated with two small peaks, one at 800m and the other at ∼2000m. High resolution GPS (Global Positioning System) sonde (Vaisala) measurements around the same region onboard the research vessel Sagar Kanya (around the same time of the aircraft sortie) revealed two convectively well mixed layers, one from ground to ∼700m with an inversion at the top and the other extends from 1200m to ∼2000m with a second inversion at ∼2200m and a convectively stable region in the altitude range 700–1200m. The observed peaks in the MB profile are found to be associated with these temperature inversions. In addition, long-range transport from the Indo- Gangetic Plain (IGP) and deserts lying further to the west also influence the vertical profile of BC. Latitudinal variation of MB showed a remarkable land ocean contrast at the 500m altitude (within the well mixed region) with remarkably lower values over oceans, suggesting the impact of strong sources over the mainland. However, above the ABL (at 1500m), the latitudinal variations were quite weak, and this appears to be resulting from the impact of long-range transport. Comparison of the altitude profiles of MB over BoB off BBR with those obtained during the earlier occasion over the inland stations of Hyderabad and Kanpur showed similarities above ∼500m, with MB remaining around a steady value of ∼1 𝜇 g m−3. However, large differences are seen within the ABL. Even though the observed MB values are not unusually high, their near constancy in the vertical column will have important implications to radiative forcing.

    • On the marine atmospheric boundary layer characteristics over Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

      Denny P Alappattu D Bala Subrahamanyam P K Kunhikrishnan K M Somayaji G S Bhat R Venkatesan C B S Dutt A Bagavath Singh V K Soni A S Tripathi

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      Detailed measurements were carried out in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) which covered both Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal during March to May 2006. In this paper, we present the meteorological observations made during this campaign. The latitudinal variation of the surface layer turbulent fluxes is also described in detail.

    • A case study of atmospheric boundary layer features during winter over a tropical inland station – Kharagpur (22.32°N, 87.32°E)

      Denny P Alappattu P K Kunhikrishnan Marina Aloysius M Mohan

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      The local weather and air quality over a region are greatly influenced by the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) structure and dynamics. ABL characteristics were measured using a tethered balloon-sonde system over Kharagpur (22.32°N, 87.32°E, 40m above MSL), India, for the period 7 December 2004 to 30 December 2004, as a part of the Indian Space Research Organization– Geosphere Biosphere Program (ISRO–GBP) Aerosol Land Campaign II. High-resolution data of pressure, temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction were archived along with surface layer measurements using an automatic weather station. This paper presents the features of ABL, like ABL depth and nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) depth. The sea surface winds from Quikscat over the oceanic regions near the experiment site were analyzed along with the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis winds over Kharagpur to estimate the convergence of wind, moisture and vorticity to understand the observed variations in wind speed and relative humidity, and also the increased aerosol concentrations. The variation of ventilation coefficient (VC), a factor determining the air pollution potential over a region, is also discussed in detail.

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