• P C Pandey

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Advances in microwave remote sensing of the ocean and atmosphere

      P C Pandey T A Hariharan

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      This article reviews the current state-of-the-art and future prospects of the microwave techniques for remote sensing of the earth’s atmosphere and ocean. Geophysical parameters and their relationship with measured thermal microwave radiation is established through radiative transfer processes. The atmospheric temperature profile obtained from microwave sounding unit (msu) onboardtiros-N series of satellites is operational and is used for numerical weather prediction. The demonstrated applications of scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (smmr) onboard most recent and advancedseasat satellite are highlighted.The capability ofseasat active sensors for monitoring ocean parameters have also been indicated. Feasible applications of microwave techniquese.g. moisture profile with advanced moisture sounder (amsu), and surface pressure from multifrequency active microwave pressure sounder (mps) are also described. Finally the recent and advanced microwave limb sounding (mls) technique and its applications to upper atmospheric research has been reviewed.

    • Numerical experiment with modelled return echo of a satellite altimeter from a rough ocean surface and a simple iterative algorithm for the estimation of significant wave height

      Sujit Basu P C Pandey

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      We have simulated the return echo of a satellite altimeter from a rough ocean surface using an analytical formula and have studied its sensitivity with respect to various oceanic and altimeter parameters. Our numerical experiment shows that for normally observed significant wave heights (SWH) the effect of off-nadir angle (ONA) up to 0.5° on the leading edge is not severe. Also, small surface roughness skewness seems to have little effect on the overall shape of the echo.

      Newton’s iterative scheme has been used to retrieve SWH from the mean return waveform without noise and with additive Gaussian noise typical of Seasat and Geosat altimeters. It has been observed that SWH can be retrieved in the presence of noise with an accuracy of ±0.6 m for ONA less than 0.5°. For higher ONA, accurate retrieval requires the use of precomputed look-up table along with our scheme.

    • Early prediction of onset of south west monsoon from ERS-1 scatterometer winds

      U R Rao P S Desai P C Joshi P C Pandey B S Gohil B Simon

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      Detailed analysis of the surface winds over the Indian Ocean derived from ERS-1 scatterometer data during the years 1993 and 1994 has been used to understand and unambiguously identify the onset phase of south-west monsoon. Five day (pentad) averaged wind vectors for the period April to June during both years have been examined to study the exact reversal of wind direction as well as the increase in wind speed over the Arabian Sea in relation to the onset of monsoon over the Indian west coast (Kerala). The related upper level humidity available from other satellites has also been analysed.

      The results of our analysis clearly show a consistent dramatic reversal in wind direction over the western Arabian Sea three weeks in advance of the onset of monsoon. The wind speed shows a large increase coinciding with the onset of monsoon. These findings together show the dominant role of sea surface winds in establishing the monsoon circulation. The study confirms that the cross equatorial current phenomenon becomes more important after the onset of monsoon.

    • Changes in the source and transport mechanism of terrigenous input to the Indian sector of Southern Ocean during the late Quaternary and its palaeoceanographic implications

      M Thamban S S Naik R Mohan A Rajakumar N Basavaiah Witty D’Souza Sarita Kerkar M M Subramaniam M Sudhakar P C Pandey

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      Changes in the terrigenous sediment source and transport mechanisms during the late Quaternary have been investigated using four sediment cores within the Indian sector of Southern Ocean, using the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and sedimentological records. Sediments deposited during the Holocene and other interglacial periods were characterised by low MS, low sand content, reduced ice-rafted detritus (IRD) input and increased illite possibly transported via hydrographic advection from the south. The glacial intervals are characterised by high MS, high sand content, increased IRD input and reduced illite clays, derived from both local as well as Antarctic sources. Significant reduction in clay fraction and illite content during glacials suggests that the erosive and transporting capabilities of the deep and bottom waters could have reduced compared to the interglacial times. The changes in terrigenous influx to this region were significantly influenced by the rhythmic glacial-interglacial fluctuations in bottom circulation and the position of the Polar Front.

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