• Onkari Prasad

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Some applications of humidity profiles estimated from INSAT infra red digital cloud imagery data

      Onkari Prasad Sant Prasad Kanti Prasad R R Kelkar

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      Moisture profiles have been estimated over the region bounded by the latitudes 40°N and 40°S and longitudes 30°E to 130°E using INSAT digital infra red cloud imagery data. The representativeness of these profiles in representing moisture field associated with the development and movement of synoptic scale systems during the period September 15th, 1996 to March 31st, 1997 has been examined. It has been shown that the changes in the moisture field associated with the withdrawal of the southwest and northeast monsoons from the Indian sub-continent, development and movement of synoptic scale sytems (depressions, tropical cyclones and waves in easterlies) and equatorial troughs in the Indian Ocean could be clearly seen in humidity profiles. The initial development of tropical systems is first seen in the humidity field in the upper troposphere. These profiles could be used in monitoring the initial development and subsequent movement of tropical systems. Further the data on moisture distribution from the data gap regions of the Indian Ocean could be used as an additional source of moisture in numerical analysis and prognosis.

    • Surface and upper air meteorological features during onset phase of 2003 monsoon

      O P Singh H R Hatwar Onkari Prasad

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      The second campaign of the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX-II) was conducted in two phases viz., March–April and May–June 2003. In the present work, the buoy and ocean research vessel data collected during the second phase of ARMEX-II have been analysed to bring out the characteristic features of monsoon onset. The results have shown that the thermodynamical features such as build up of lower tropospheric instability and increased height of zero degree isotherm occurred about a week before the monsoon onset over Kerala and adjoining southeast Arabian Sea. There was a sharp fall in the temperature difference between 850 and 500 hPa, and the height of zero degree isotherm about 2–3 days before the monsoon onset. The flux of sensible heat was positive (sea to air) over south Arabian Sea during the onset phase. Over the Bay of Bengal higher negative (air to sea) values of sensible flux prevailed before the monsoon onset which became less negative with the advance of monsoon over that region.

      The pre-onset period was characterized by large sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Arabian Sea with rapid decrease towards north of the warm pool region. The buoy observations have shown that SST remained close to 30.5°C in the warm pool region during the pre-onset period in 2003 but only 2–3 degrees away (north of this region) SSTs were as low as 28.5-29°C. An interesting aspect of sea level pressure (SLP) variability over the Indian seas during the onset phase of summer monsoon 2003 was undoubtedly, the highest SLP in the warm pool region inspite of very high SSTs.

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