• Naveen

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Hypotheses for earthquake occurrences

      Naveen P S Moharir V K Gaur

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      Very little work has been done in generating alternatives to the Poisson process model. The work reported here deals with alternatives to the Poisson process model for the earthquakes and checks them using empirical data and the statistical hypothesis testing apparatus. The strategy used here for generating hypotheses is to compound the Poisson process. The parameter of the Poisson process is replaced by a random variable having prescribed density function. The density functions used are gamma, chi and extended (gamma/chi). The original distribution is then averaged out with respect to these density functions. For the compound Poisson processes the waiting time distributions for the future events are derived. As the parameters for the various statistical models for earthquake occurrences are not known, the problem is basically of composite hypothesis testing. One way of designing a test is to estimate these parameters and use them as true values. Momentmatching is used here to estimate the parameters. The results of hypothesis testing using data from Hindukush and North East India are presented.

    • Analytical solutions of one-dimensional advection–diffusion equation with variable coefficients in a finite domain

      Atul Kumar Dilip Kumar Jaiswal Naveen Kumar

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      Analytical solutions are obtained for one-dimensional advection –diffusion equation with variable coefficients in a longitudinal finite initially solute free domain,for two dispersion problems.In the first one,temporally dependent solute dispersion along uniform flow in homogeneous domain is studied.In the second problem the velocity is considered spatially dependent due to the inhomogeneity of the domain and the dispersion is considered proportional to the square of the velocity. The velocity is linearly interpolated to represent small increase in it along the finite domain.This analytical solution is compared with the numerical solution in case the dispersion is proportional to the same linearly interpolated velocity.The input condition is considered continuous of uniform and of increasing nature both.The analytical solutions are obtained by using Laplace transformation technique.In that process new independent space and time variables have been introduced. The effects of the dependency of dispersion with time and the inhomogeneity of the domain on the solute transport are studied separately with the help of graphs.

    • Measurement of marine productivity using 15N and 13C tracers: Some methodological aspects

      Naveen Gandhi Sanjeev Kumar S Prakash R Ramesh M S Sheshshayee

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      Various experiments involving the measurement of new, regenerated and total productivity using 15N and 13C tracers were carried out in the Bay of Bengal (BOB) and in the Arabian Sea. Results from 15N tracer experiments indicate that nitrate uptake can be underestimated by experiments with incubation time > 4 hours. Indirect evidence suggests pico- and nano-phytoplankton, on their dominance over microphytoplankton, can also influence the f-ratios. Difference in energy requirement for assimilation of different nitrogen compounds decides the preferred nitrogen source during the early hours of incubation. Variation in light intensity during incubation also plays a significant role in the assimilation of nitrogen. Results from time course experiments with both 15N and 13C tracers suggest that photoinhibition appears significant in BOB and the Arabian Sea during noon. A significant correlation has been found in the productivity values obtained using 15N and 13C tracers.

    • One-dimensional unsteady solute transport along unsteady flow through inhomogeneous medium

      Sanjay K Yadav Atul Kumar Dilip K Jaiswal Naveen Kumar

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      The one-dimensional linear advection–diffusion equation is solved analytically by using the Laplace integral transform. The solute transport as well as the flow field is considered to be unsteady, both of independent patterns. The solute dispersion occurs through an inhomogeneous semi-infinite medium. Hence, velocity is considered to be an increasing function of the space variable, linearly interpolated in a finite domain in which solute dispersion behaviour is studied. Dispersion is considered to be proportional to the square of the spatial linear function. Thus, the coefficients of the advection–diffusion equation are functions of both the independent variables, but the expression for each coefficient is considered in degenerate form. These coefficients are reduced into constant coefficients with the help of a new space variable, introduced in our earlier works, and new time variables. The source of the solute is considered to be a stationary uniform point source of pulse type.

    • A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

      T G Sitharam Naveen James K S Vipin K Ganesha Raj

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      This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

    • Analytical solution of advection–diffusion equation in heterogeneous infinite medium using Green’s function method

      Abhishek Sanskrityayn Naveen Kumar

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      Some analytical solutions of one-dimensional advection–diffusion equation (ADE) with variable dispersion coefficient and velocity are obtained using Green’s function method (GFM). The variability attributes to the heterogeneity of hydro-geological media like river bed or aquifer in more general ways than that in the previous works. Dispersion coefficient is considered temporally dependent, while velocity is considered spatially and temporally dependent. The spatial dependence is considered to be linear and temporal dependence is considered to be of linear, exponential and asymptotic. The spatio-temporal dependence of velocity is considered in three ways. Results of previous works are also derived validating the results of the present work. To use GFM, a moving coordinate transformation is developed through which this ADE is reduced into a form, whose analytical solution is already known. Analytical solutions are obtained for the pollutant’s mass dispersion from an instantaneous point source as well as from a continuous point source in a heterogeneous medium. The effect of such dependence on the mass transport is explained through the illustrations of the analytical solutions.

    • Chronology of desert margin in western India using improved luminescence dating protocols

      Naveen Chauhan P Morthekai

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      The present study provides improved chronology for the desert margin fluvial sediments of semi-arid region located in the Mahi river basin, western India. The sequence has preserved a near-continuous record of climate change since the Last Interglacial. An earlier attempt of dating based on feldspar IRSL chronology shows a combined effect of anomalous fading and unbleached components resulting in age inversions. The present work tries to explore the possibility of using blue light stimulated luminescence (BLSL) of quartz, infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) of feldspar and the newly developed methodologies, like natural correction factor based single aliquot regeneration (NCF-SAR) protocol and decision making schemes based on distribution of doses and beta heterogeneity concept for luminescence dating of sediments. Observations suggest that quartz suffered from significant sensitivity changes during natural signal measurement and partial bleaching. A combination of NCF-SAR protocol and sample specific equivalent dose computation helped in arriving at better age estimate for present samples. The study also compares the criteria for the selection of different age models that are used at present. The age of the alluvial sequence is now bracketed between 10 ka (upper aeolian unit) and 75 ka (lowermost fluvial unit).

    • Analytical solution for solute transport from a pulse point source along a medium having concave/convex spatial dispersivity within fractal and Euclidean framework


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      In the present study, analytical solutions of the advection dispersion equation (ADE) with spatially dependent concave and convex dispersivity are obtained within the fractal and the Euclidean frameworks by using the extended Fourier series method. The dispersion coefficient is considered to be proportional to the nth power of a non-homogeneous quadratic spatial function, where the index n is considered to vary between 0 and 1.5 so that the spatial dependence of dispersivity remains within the limit to describe the heterogeneity in the fractal framework. Real values like n ¼ 0.5 and 1.5 are considered to delineate heterogeneity of the aquifer in the fractal framework, whereas integral values like n = 1 represent thesame in the Euclidean sense. A concave or convex variation is free from demanding a limiting value as in the case of linear variation, hence it is more appropriate in the ambience of many disciplines in which ADE is used. In this study, concentration at the source site remains uniform until the source is present and becomes zero once it is annihilated forever. The analytical solutions, validated through the respective numerical solutions, are obtained in the form of an extended Fourier series with only first five terms. They are convergent to the desired concentration pattern and are stable with the Peclet number. It has been possible because of the formulation of a new Sturm–Liouville problem with advective information. The analytical solutions obtained in this paper are novel.

    • Bleaching of blue light stimulated luminescence of quartz by moonlight


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      Moonlight is sunlight reflected from the moon’s surface. It is additionally modulated by the Earth’s atmosphere, dust and pollutants on its way to the surface of the Earth. This contribution reports the bleaching rates of blue light stimulated luminescence (BLSL) signal of Quartz under full moonlight exposure at the Earth’s surface. Quartz BLSL reduced to 70% by an exposure of 5 hrs moonlight, is in contrast to $\sim$90% reduction in < 3 s with daylight. This was anticipated due to (a) reduced moonlight flux by about a factor of half a million (Agrawal in Lat. Am. J. Phys. Educ. 4(2):325–328, 2010; J. Phys. Astron. 5(1):1–15, 2017); (b) inverse power law dependence of bleaching efficiency on wavelength (Spooner in The validity of optical dating based on feldspar, Ph.D. Thesis, Oxford University, Oxford, 1993; Chen and McKeever in Theory of Thermoluminescence and related phenomena, World Scientific Publications, London, 1997, Chen and Pagonis in Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence: A simulation approach, Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 2011); and (c) moonlight and daylight have spectral peaks around 650 and 550 nm, respectively. Deconvolution of OSL components suggests that moonlight affects the fast component of OSL signal the most. This has ramification for the application in polar regions, where the availability of daylight is at a premium during the winter months. Within a given context, it is conjectured that this could be used to infer the seasonality of sediment transport.


      $\bullet$ Up to 40% reduction of quartz luminescence signal observed over long moonlight exposure.

      $\bullet$ Moonlight can bleach up to 70% of the fast component of blue light stimulated luminescence signal.

      $\bullet$ Moonlight bleaching may hamper the accuracy of ages of sediments which are only transported during night.

      $\bullet$ Seasonality of sediment deposition can be studied using the bleaching effect of moonlight on quartz.

    • Geochemical characteristics of fluorine- and chlorine-bearing biotite from Tusham Ring Complex, NW India: Constraints on halogen distribution and geodynamic evolution


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      The present study is carried out to understand the factors controlling halogens present in biotites, role of halogens in metallogeny in context to the magmatic evolution of Tusham Ring Complex (TRC), NW Indian Shield. The investigated rocks are identified with hypersolvus, high-K calc-alkaline, peraluminous, ferroan-enriched and typical A-type granitoids affinity. They are enriched in SiO$_{2}$, Na$_{2}$O + K$_{2}$O, REEs (except Eu), LILE + HFSE, elevated in Fe/Mg, Ga/Al, Th/U, A/CNK ratio and depleted in CaO, MgO, Sr, Cr, Ni, P, Ti, V and Eu abundances. The sequential accumulation of incompatible trace elements (LILE, HFSE, REEs and others) in studied rocks overlaps almost entirely the range of rare metal granitoids and high heat-producing granitoids. The elemental geochemistry in conjunction with high abundances of F (0.80–7.11 wt%) and Cl (0.44–1.56 wt%) in biotite mineral collectively attribute to hydrothermal fluid activity and the subsequent mineralization around TRC region. Our new results suggest that the acidic magmatism that occurred in the TRC is considered as a part of the plume-related Neoproterozoic Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) anorogenic magmatism.


      $\bullet$ The bulk geochemistry data and the high concentration of fluorine (0.80–7.11 wt%) and chlorine (0.44–1.56 wt %) in biotite mineral indicate halogen enriched magmatic source.

      $\bullet$ The halogen enriched magma is an important key to understand the magmatic evolution and metallogeny of Tusham Ring Complex.

      $\bullet$ The high concentration of rare metal, rare earth metals and radioactive elements suggests that the investigated granitoids are rare metal granitoids with high heat producing capacity.

      $\bullet$ The acid volcano-plutonic rocks of Tusham Ring Complex are important barcodes to reconstruct the Neoproterozoic Rodinia supercontinent and related tecto-magmatic activities occurred in NW Indian shield.

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