• N G K Nair

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Petrochemistry of granite and granophyres of the Ezhimala igneous complex, Kerala, India

      N G K Nair M Santosh

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      Anorthosite-gabbro-granite-granophyre suite of rocks occurring in the Precambrian migmatitic gneiss of Cannanore district, Kerala and spatially related to the Bavali lineament, constitute the Ezhimala igneous complex (EIC). The granophyres exhibit typical cuneiform and radiating fringe-type intergrowths. Geochemistry indicates a tonalitic—trondhjemitic to granitic composition of the residual magma. Petrochemical characters and lithologic association suggest that the EIC represents a complete differentiation sequence derived by strong fractionation and crystal cumulation of a parent basaltic magma which followed a tholeiitic differentiation trend, with no significant crustal participation as implied by the low initial strontium isotope levels. Occurrence of the complex along the Bavali lineament, which is a major rift-zone, emphasises a rift-controlled magmatism in this part of the Indian shield.

    • Alkali granite-syenite-carbonatite association in Munnar Kerala, India; implications for rifting, alkaline magmatism and liquid immiscibility

      N G K Nair M Santosh P K Thampi

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      Occurrence of carbonatite is reported from the Munnar area, Kerala, where an alkali granite-syenite-carbonatite association is seen emplaced along the intersection zone of the Attur and Kerala fault-lineaments. The carbonatites are of two varieties, a calcite-rich sovite and a very coarse grained, calcite and dolomite bearing alvikite. Higher levels of SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO are characteristic of these as compared to the composition of typical carbonatites. The transition element levels are high whereas the incompatible elements show lower values. The low Sr values, lower amount of apatite and absence of rare metal minerals preclude a primary carbonatite magma. The associated syenite and alkali granite have higher K2O, K2O/Na2O, K/Rb, K/Ba and transition element levels. Petrochemical features suggest the rock association to be a result of separation of an immiscible fraction of less viscous carbonate liquid during cooling and ascent from a more viscous polymerized alkali silicate phase. The pre-requisites for melt equilibration and liquid immiscibility were achieved through volatile degassing related to crustal warping and rifting. The unique alkaline association of Munnar, which shows spatial relationships with deep-seated faults as well as a probable triple-point junction, is suggested to be a signature of late Precambrian alkaline magmatism which manifested in the Indian shield as a precursor to the rifting of the continental margin.

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