Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Evaluation of ambient air quality in Dehradun city during 2011–2014

      Amar Deep Chhavi P Pandey Hemwati Nandan Purohit K D Narendra Singh Jaydeep Singh Srivastava A K Narendra Ojha

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      The variations in the ambient concentrations of particulate matter (SPM and PM$_{10}$) and gaseous pollutants (SO$_{2}$ and NO$_{2}$) at Clock tower (CT), Rajpur road (RR) and Inter State Bus Terminal (ISBT) station in Dehradun city, Uttarakhand, India are analysed for the period of 2011–2014. Mean concentrations are observed to be higher during pre-monsoon season as compared to the winter and monsoon. PM$_{10}$ and SPM concentrations with maximum values of 203 $\pm$ 23 and 429 $\pm$ 49 $\mu$g m$^{-3}$, respectively, during winter, are found to exceed the national standards by factors of 2 and 3. Winter-time elevated pollution in Dehradun is attributed to the lower ventilation coefficient (derived from Era interim model fields) and minimal precipitation. Nevertheless, the SO$_{2}$ and NO$_{2}$ levels are observed to be within the criteria notified by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India. Correlation analysis shows profound impacts of the meteorology and local dynamics on the observed variations in observed trace species. Additionally, the stronger inter-species correlation variations (r=0.79 for SO$_{2}$ with NO$_{2}$, and r=0.89 for PM$_{10}$ with SPM), which may suggest their origin from common sources. Analysis of ‘Air Quality Index (AQI)’ variations indicates unhealthy atmospheric conditions near the major city centers and bus station. More observations in the region are highly desirable to understand the dispersion of the enhanced pollution in the Dehradun valley.

    • Land subsidence mapping and monitoring using modified persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar in Jharia Coalfield, India


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      Subsidence has been adversely affecting Jharia Coalfield (JCF) for the last few decades. This study attempts to show the feasibility of the modified Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) technique with C-band SAR data to investigate the slow surface deformation caused by coal mine fire and underground mining activities in JCF. Also, a multi-temporal analysis of SAR images of ENVISAT ASAR has been carried out for monitoring and mapping of temporal land subsidence of the area under study. The modified PSI technique has proven its ability to detect land subsidence over the vegetated and rural areas. It also resolves low spatial density of permanent scatterers by considering partially correlated scatterers as permanent scatterers (PSs) and extracting information from these PSs. The study has been concentrated towards detecting continuous slow rate subsidence of five major sites of JCF. The maximum rate of slow deformation among all sites is recorded as 29 mm/year with a cumulative subsidence value of 90 mm. Field validation of subsidence results obtained through PS-InSAR is correlated with the previously published report and the master plan of JCF, showing subsidence locations. Conclusively, the adopted methodology is practically feasible for detection, monitoring and mapping of slow deformation using C-band SAR data in coal mine area.

    • Simulating hydrological response of a monsoon dominated reservoir catchment and command with heterogeneous cropping pattern using VIC model


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      Present study assesses the effect of finer land-use classification in simulating the rainfall-runoff response of Kangsabati reservoir catchment (3,627 km$^{2}$) and command (7,112 km$^{2}$) by considering cropland heterogeneity in variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model. High resolution LISS-IV satellite imageries were used for the land-use classification. Global sensitivity analysis was performed using VIC-ASSIST to identify the most and least influential parameters based on the sensitivity index of elementary effects. A fully distributed calibration approach was employed using 16 (detailed) and 8 (lumped) vegetation classes. Low flows during lean periods were over-estimated and peak flows were under-estimated by both the model setups at Kangsabati reservoir site. Detailed land-use classification resulted in the reduction in streamflow over-estimation (Percent Bias (PBIAS) from −20.99 to −14.41 during calibration and from –22.83 to –7.17 during validation) at daily time step. It further demonstrates the improvement in simulating the peak flows; hence, highlighting the importance of detailed land-use classification for vegetation parameterization in VIC model setup. River discharge regulation at Kangsabati reservoir resulted in poor model performance at Mohanpur, downstream site of Kangsabati reservoir. Therefore, calibration for Mohanpur was performed after updating the VIC simulated streamflow with routed reservoir spillage using Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) model. Streamflow updation employing HEC-RAS at Mohanpur improved the modelling efficiency (Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) from 0.50 to 0.65 during calibration and from 0.55 to 0.67 during validation) and reduced bias (PBIAS from 6.25 to –2.23 during calibration and from 15.06 to 7.40 during validation) considerably for daily flows. Model performance with reasonable accuracy was achieved at both the calibration locations which demonstrates the potential applicability of VIC model to predict streamflow in the monsoon dominated Kangsabati reservoir catchment and command.


      $\bullet$LISS-IV satellite imageries were classified using ground truth survey data obtained for different crop types in the study area.

      $\bullet$Crop specific vegetation parameterization was used in setting up VIC modeling framework.

      $\bullet$Modeling efficacy was assessed for two vegetation parameterization schemes using single crop type and multiple crops.

      $\bullet$Global sensitivity analysis and fully distributed automatic calibration was performed using VIC-ASSIST software package.

      $\bullet$Utility of HEC-RAS was shown in routing reservoir spillage to the downstream gauging point in VIC modeling framework in the absence of integrated reservoir module.

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