• Mohan C Baral

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Structures in the banded iron-formation of the southeastern Bababudan Hills, Karnataka, India

      Dhruba Mukhopadhyay Mohan C Baral Ranjan K Niyogi

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The banded iron-formation in the southeastern Bababudan Hills display a macroscopic synformal bend gently plunging towards WNW. The bedding planes in smaller individual sectors show a cylindrical or conical pattern of folding. The dominant set of minor folds has WNW-ESE trending axial planes and the axes plunge towards WNW at gentle to moderate angles, though there is considerable variation in orientation of both axes and axial planes. A later set of sporadically observed folds has N-S trending axial planes. The macroscopic synformal bend within the study area forms the southeastern corner of a horseshoe shaped regional synformal fold closure which encompasses the entire Bababudan range.

      The minor folds are buckle folds modified to a varying extent by flattening. In some examples the quartzose layers appear to be more competent than the ferruginous layers; in others the reverse is true. The folds are frequently noncylindrical and the axes show curvature with branching and en echelon patterns. Such patterns are interpreted to be the result of complex linking of progressively growing folds whose initiation is controlled by the presence of original perturbations in the layers. Domes and basins have at places developed as a result of shortening along two perpendicular directions in a constrictional type of strain. Development of folds at different stages of progressive deformation has given rise to nonparallelism of fold axes and axial planes. The axes and axial planes of smaller folds developed on the limbs of a larger fold are often oriented oblique to those of the latter. Progressive deformation has caused rotation and bending of axial planes of earlier formed folds by those developed at later stages of the same deformational episode. Coaxial recumbent to nearly reclined fold locally encountered on the N-S limb of the macroscopic fold may belong to an earlier episode of deformation or to the early stage of the main deformation episode.

      The E-W to ESE-WNW strike of axial plane of the regional fold system in the Bababudan belt contrasts with the N-S to NNW-SSE strike of axial planes of the main fold system in the Chitradurga and other schist belts of Karnataka.

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