Chuaria circularis (Walcott 1899) from the Suket Shale of the Vindhyan Supergroup (central India) has been reinvestigated for its morphology and chemical composition using biostatistics, electron microscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography. Morphology and microscopic investigations provide little clues on the specific biological affinity ofChuaria as numerous preservational artifacts seem to be incorporated. On the contrary, the predominance of η aliphatic pyrolysates of presently studiedChuaria from India rather supports an algal affinity. Moreover, the reflectance ofC circularis can be used to obtain a comparative maturity parameter of the Precambrian sediments. The review of the age and geographical distribution ofC circularis constrains that this species cannot be considered as an index fossil for the Proterozoic time.