• Mansoor Ahmad

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex

      Ashima Saikia Bibhuti Gogoi Mansoor Ahmad Talat Ahmad

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      The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, crosscutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.

    • Hydrocarbon source rock potential evaluation of the Late Paleocene Patala Formation, Salt Range, Pakistan: Organic geochemical and palynofacies approach

      Nasar Khan Naveed Anjum Mansoor Ahmad Muhammad Awais Naqib Ullah

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      Organic geochemical and palynofacies analyses were carried out on shale intervals of the Late Paleocene Patala Formation at Nammal Gorge Section, western Salt Range, Pakistan. The total organic carbon content and Rock-Eval pyrolysis results indicated that the formation is dominated by type II and type III kerogens. Rock-Eval ${T}_{\mathrm{max}}$ vs. hydrogen index (HI) and thermal alteration index indicated that the analysed shale intervals present in the formation are thermally mature. $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ yields showed poor source rock potential for the formation. Three palynofacies assemblages including palynofacies-1, palynofacies-2 and palynofacies-3 were identified, which are prone to dry gas, wet gas and oil generation, respectively. The palynofacies assessment revealed the presence of oil/gas and gas prone type II and type III kerogens in the formation and their deposition on proximal shelf with suboxic to anoxic conditions. The kerogen macerals are dominated by vitrinite and amorphinite with minor inertinite and liptinite. The kerogen macerals are of both marine and terrestrial origin, deposited on a shallow shelf. Overall, the dark black carbonaceous shales present within the formation act as a source rock for hydrocarbons with poor-to-moderate source rock quality, while the grey shales act as a poor source rock for hydrocarbon generation.

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