• M Santosh

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Petrochemistry of granite and granophyres of the Ezhimala igneous complex, Kerala, India

      N G K Nair M Santosh

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      Anorthosite-gabbro-granite-granophyre suite of rocks occurring in the Precambrian migmatitic gneiss of Cannanore district, Kerala and spatially related to the Bavali lineament, constitute the Ezhimala igneous complex (EIC). The granophyres exhibit typical cuneiform and radiating fringe-type intergrowths. Geochemistry indicates a tonalitic—trondhjemitic to granitic composition of the residual magma. Petrochemical characters and lithologic association suggest that the EIC represents a complete differentiation sequence derived by strong fractionation and crystal cumulation of a parent basaltic magma which followed a tholeiitic differentiation trend, with no significant crustal participation as implied by the low initial strontium isotope levels. Occurrence of the complex along the Bavali lineament, which is a major rift-zone, emphasises a rift-controlled magmatism in this part of the Indian shield.

    • Geochemistry and petrogenetic evolution of the diatexites of Central Kerala, India

      P K Rajan M Santosh K K Ramachandran

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      The hornblende-biotite gneisses of Central Kerala which cover approximately 490km2 exhibit schlieric and nebulitic structures, tending towards a homophanous nature and are classified here as diatexites. Mafic protoliths and restite biotite, each representing the refractory residuum of two independent partial melting episodes are widely present in the gneisses. The general mineral assemblage of the gneisses comprise quartz, K-feldspar, oligoclase, biotite and hornblende. Chemically, they are dominantly adamellitic and the behaviour of major and trace elements is consistent with a magmatic parentage. Based on petrochemical criteria, a two-stage evolution model is proposed here, which involves (i) partial melting of mafic granulites under high Archean geothermal gradients and generation of tonalite/trondhjemite through amphibole and plagioclase fractionation and (ii) partial melting and subsequent quartz-alkali feldspar fractionation of the tonalite/trondhjemite under amphibolite facies conditions with synchronous K-enrichment resulting in the diatectic adamellites.

    • Alkali granite-syenite-carbonatite association in Munnar Kerala, India; implications for rifting, alkaline magmatism and liquid immiscibility

      N G K Nair M Santosh P K Thampi

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      Occurrence of carbonatite is reported from the Munnar area, Kerala, where an alkali granite-syenite-carbonatite association is seen emplaced along the intersection zone of the Attur and Kerala fault-lineaments. The carbonatites are of two varieties, a calcite-rich sovite and a very coarse grained, calcite and dolomite bearing alvikite. Higher levels of SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO are characteristic of these as compared to the composition of typical carbonatites. The transition element levels are high whereas the incompatible elements show lower values. The low Sr values, lower amount of apatite and absence of rare metal minerals preclude a primary carbonatite magma. The associated syenite and alkali granite have higher K2O, K2O/Na2O, K/Rb, K/Ba and transition element levels. Petrochemical features suggest the rock association to be a result of separation of an immiscible fraction of less viscous carbonate liquid during cooling and ascent from a more viscous polymerized alkali silicate phase. The pre-requisites for melt equilibration and liquid immiscibility were achieved through volatile degassing related to crustal warping and rifting. The unique alkaline association of Munnar, which shows spatial relationships with deep-seated faults as well as a probable triple-point junction, is suggested to be a signature of late Precambrian alkaline magmatism which manifested in the Indian shield as a precursor to the rifting of the continental margin.

    • The Mannapra syenite, Central Kerala, India: Geochemistry, petrogenesis and bearing on anorogenic magmatism

      M Santosh K G Thara

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      Occurrence of a syenite body near Mannapra, Trichur district, Kerala, is reported. The syenite, emplaced within charnockitic country rocks along the Idamalayar faultlineament, is exposed over an area of 8 km2. The rock, classified as quartz alkali feldspar syenite based on Q-A-P proportions, has alkali feldspar as the dominant mineral constituent which shows variation in perthitic texture from crypto- to micro- and patch-perthites. Both ortho- and clino-pyroxenes are present, with the former showing blebs of plagioclase suggesting Al-unmixing. Clinopyroxene shows subsolidus reequilibration with greenish pleochroic grain margins and local conversion to alkali amphibole. The petrochemical characters indicate that the syenite crystallized from a partial melt which equilibrated from K-rich, Rb-depleted source in the upper mantle, in response to crustal distension and mantle degassing prior to the rifting of the continent. Reaction between early formed minerals and the late peralkaline liquid towards the residual phase resulted in subsolidus reequilibration textures. The syenite is envisaged to be yet another example of the manifestation of anorogenic magmatism in this part of the Indian shield.

    • Geochemistry of coexisting hornblende and biotite from the Ambalavayal granite, Kerala

      M Santosh

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      Major and trace element geochemistry of coexisting hornblendes and biotites from the Ambalavayal granite, northern Kerala, are presented. The hornblendes correspond to edenitic composition, whereas the biotites correspond to annite. The hornblendes typically show high Al2O3 contents (9·69–11·89%) comparable with those from anorogenic granites. The biotites are characteristically low Mg-type, similar to those reported from alkaline rocks. The distribution coefficients calculated for all the major and trace elements are presented and an evaluation of the nature of variation indicate near-chemical equilibrium conditions during the crystallization of the two minerals. The hornblende-biotite tie lines in the Fe3+−Fe2+−Mg compositional triangle, lie parallel to those of buffered biotites, indicating crystallization in an environment closed to oxygen and well above the Ni−NiO buffer. It is inferred that thefH2O increased towards the residual stage andfO2 values were high, in the range of 10−15 bars.

    • Radioelement geochemistry of alkali granites of the Kerala region, south-west India

      M Santosh K Vijaya Kumar

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      Th, U and K abundances in four alkali granites of the Kerala region, south-west India, are presented. The plutons show high radioelement levels, correlatable with those of alkali granites in other regions. The nature of variation is consistent with the correlation of Th and U with accessory phases like sphene, zircon, allanite, apatite and monazite. A geochronologic correlation is also observed between the alkali granites and the Th-bearing beach placers of the region. The petrogenetic features of the alkali plutons, their taphrogenic association, Pan-African affiliation and high Th/U levels suggest that the alkali plutons are favourable locales for radioelement exploration.

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