Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Assimilation of individual components of radiosonde winds: An investigation to assess the impact of single-component winds from space-borne measurements on NWP


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      Wind observations are critical for the better atmospheric analysis for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), particularly over the tropics. High-resolution direct wind observations are essential for defining smaller scales and deeper atmospheric structures. Recently launched Aeolus satellite delivers wind profiles that mostly satisfy these requirements, suitable for NWP assimilation. The main product from Aeolus is the horizontally projected Line of Sight wind component, a single component of wind, approximately zonal in nature over the tropics and more meridional over the Polar region, and the main limitation of this observation. Observing system experiments are conducted with the assimilation of individual components of radiosonde and pilot balloon winds to assess the impact of a single component of wind compared to the assimilation of full wind vector in the NCMRWF global assimilation and forecast system. Denial of the zonal component of wind in the assimilation system produced a larger observation increment (observation – model background) in the meridional wind than the full vector assimilation. In contrast, the observation increment of the zonal wind remains nearly the same, even after removing the meridional wind component from the assimilation system. Assimilation of both zonal and meridional components produced changes in the analysis fields of various meteorological variables; however, the zonal component plays a significant role in the tropics. Both wind components play an important role in controlling the humidity field, whereas only zonal components of wind impact the temperature field in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Though the full vector wind assimilation produces a larger impact in the forecast fields of various meteorological variables, the zonal component has more impact than the meridional component. Verification of analysis and forecast wind against the satellite-derived atmospheric motion vectors clearly show the importance of both the horizontal components of winds in the lower troposphere. In contrast, the zonal component of wind alone has a high impact on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

    • Validation and assimilation of INSAT atmospheric motion vectors: Case studies for tropical cyclones


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      INSAT-3DR is the latest geostationary satellite launched by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) as a continuation to the INSAT-3D, for enhanced meteorological observations. National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) receives INSAT-3DR Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) through Global Telecommunication System (GTS) along with the AMVs from other satellites. The INSAT-3DR AMVs are validated against the in-situ observations for a period of 3 months, May–July 2020. The validation results are compared with the AMVs from other satellites like INSAT-3D and Meteosat-8 located over the same geographical area and found that the quality of INSAT-3DR AMVs is comparable. After the successful validation, INSAT-3DR AMVs are assimilated in the NCMRWF Global Forecast System (NGFS) for two cyclone cases, formed during May–June 2020 over the North Indian Ocean. Four Observation System Experiments (OSEs) are designed, with the assimilation of individual and combined AMVs from INSAT (3D and 3DR) and Meteosat-8, to see the impact of AMVs during the cyclones Amphan formed over the Bay of Bengal and Nisarga formed over the Arabian Sea. In general, assimilation of AMVs improved the simulation of both the cyclones Amphan and Nisarga formed during May–June 2020. Introduction of INSAT AMVs slowed down the otherwise fast-moving cyclone Amphan simulated due to the assimilation of Meteosat-8 AMVs. Both intensity and track of the cyclones Amphan and Nisarga are better simulated when the AMVs from INSAT and Meteosat-8 are assimilated together.

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