• MUHAMMAD ARMAGHAN FAISAL MIRAJ

Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

• An integrated approach to evaluate the unconventional hydrocarbon generation potential of the Lower Goru Formation (Cretaceous) in Southern Lower Indus basin, Pakistan

Southern Lower Indus basin is an oil and gas prone basin, which is important for producing hydrocarbon in Pakistan. Due to limited Rock-Eval pyrolysis data availability in the prospective shale gas basin, the organic facies geochemical characteristics study is a challenging task for researchers. The primary objective of this study is an evaluation of the Lower Goru Formation organic facies hydrocarbon potential by geochemical data and its subsurface facies distribution study by well tops and seismic data. The study area is situated at the Southern Lower Indus basin of Pakistan that is considering the prospective shale gas basin with immense unconventional hydrocarbon potential. In the present study, Rock-Eval pyrolysis data analysis along with the integration of both seismic and well tops data were conducted for investigation of source rock generation potential of organic facies variability within the Lower Goru Formation. The geochemical approaches used in the current study show that the Lower Goru Formation encountered in, bears fair to excellent total organic carbon (TOC) content values of 0.50–3.60% in Well-A and 0.10–4.69% in Well-B. Additionally, the results of Rock-Eval pyrolysis data show that interbedded shales of the Lower Goru Formation contain different types of kerogen (III, II–III, and II) with variable generation potential of oil and gas.

$\bf{Highlights}$

$\bullet$ The study area is located in the Southern Lower Indus basin of Pakistan which is considering the prospective shale-gas basin with immense unconventional hydrocarbon potential.

$\bullet$ The integration of geophysical and geochemical data is a predictive tool for the source rocks evaluation.

$\bullet$ In this article, we incorporate seismic and geochemical data to evaluate organic facies geochemical characteristics and subsurface geological structure.

$\bullet$ Lower Goru facies have fair to very good potential to produce hydrocarbon.

• Paleostress inversion and outcrop fracture analysis of the brittle deformation along Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), NW Himalaya, Pakistan

Fractures are the prominent deformation-induced structural features that develop in the rocks under brittle regime. Establishing a relationship between structural development and paleostress orientations is thus necessary to propose the comprehensive tectonic models of the study area. The study area lies in Lesser Himalaya (LH), which is restricted by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in the north while the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) lies south of it. This study aims to analyze the fracture pattern in the rocks along the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT, NW Himalaya, Pakistan) and perform paleostress analysis. Fifty different circle inventories were drawn in the Beld and 550 individual fracture orientations were observed and recorded. The data obtained includes orientation (dip amount, direction and strike) of fracture planes, density in terms of abundance within the definite area and fracture Blling material within the circle. The fracture data is then interpreted through Win-Tensor program for paleostress inversion. It is a computer interactive program based on Right Dihedron Method for fracture analysis and paleostress reconstruction. The results demonstrate a compressive tectonic regime with ${\sim}$NNW–SSE trending ${\sigma}_1$. It is suggested that the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) is developed almost perpendicular to maximum principal stress orientation.

• Journal of Earth System Science

Volume 131, 2022
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