M Shyam Prasad
Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 119 Issue 4 August 2010 pp 531-539
We have identified an ash layer in association with Australasian microtektites of ∼0.77Ma old in two sediment cores which are ∼450 km apart in the central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). Morphology and chemical composition of glass shards and associated microtektites have been used to trace their provenance. In ODP site 758 from Ninetyeast Ridge, ash layer-D (13 cm thick, 0.73–0.75 Ma) and layer-E (5 cm thick, 0.77–0.78 Ma) were previously correlated to the oldest Toba Tuff (OTT) eruptions of the Toba caldera, Sumatra. In this investigation, we found tephra ∼3100 km to the southwest of Toba caldera that is chemically identical to layer D of ODP site 758 and ash in the South China Sea correlated to the OTT. Layer E is not present in the CIOB or other ocean basins. The occurrence of tephra correlating to layer D suggests a widespread distribution of OTT tephra (∼3.6 × 107 km2), an ash volume of at least ∼1800 km3, a total OTT volume of 2300 km3, and classification of the OTT eruption as a super-eruption.
Volume 122 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 1161-1171
Five hundred and eighteen cosmic spherules were identified among the 672 spherules handpicked from deep sea sediments by using Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS). One of the spherules is found to enclose a spherical chondrule-like object that can be distinguished from the rest of the spherule by its shape, texture and composition and whose petrographic features, size and chemical composition are similar to chondrules from a chondritic meteorite, probably of carbonaceous chondritic nature. The present finding suggests that a small fraction of the particulate extraterrestrial matter enters the earth as fragments of larger meteorites.