• M S Narayanan

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Stratification and convection over Arabian Sea during monsoon 1979 from satellite data

      M S Narayanan B M Rao

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      From the temperature and moisture retrievals from satellites, two types of indices were derived: one indicating suppression of convection and the other indicating organized deep convection. Sea surface skin temperature and equivalent potential temperatures up to 500 mbar level of the atmosphere, derived from TIROS-N satellite products, are the basis of the two indices. The maps of these indices for various phases of 1979 monsoon are compared with percentage cloudiness, a product also available from TIROS-N satellite observations. Despite the various limitations of satellite soundings, it is shown that these satellite-derived indices can be used to indicate the strengths of atmospheric convection and inversion over the oceans.

    • Cyclone track prediction using INSAT data

      P K Pal B M Rao C M Kishtawal M S Narayanan G Rajkumar

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      INSAT visible and infrared imageries of three cyclones in the Bay of Bengal during the period 1984–1987 were analysed with a view to improve the cyclone track prediction in this region. It was observed that the rotation in the major structural cloud features (as seen from the cloud-top temperature maps) associated with these cyclones in the Bay of Bengal is followed with a change in direction of their movement. This method is seen to be particularly effective when the cyclone is severe and when the major cloud features persist for a reasonably longer time. In the present study, only the direction of movement is forecast assuming a uniform speed of the cyclone.

    • Water vapour periodicities over Indian Ocean during contrasting monsoons from NOAA satellite data

      C M Kishtawal P K Pal M S Narayanan

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      The satellite-derived moisture fields during different phases of two normal and poor monsoon years have been studied. Spectral analysis was performed in different zones of the monsoon region to study the nature and modes of intraseasonal fluctuations of lower layer moisture fields.

      Seasonal mean fields of water vapour at low and middle layers show a dry anomaly over the Arabian subcontinent and a wet anomaly over the Bay of Bengal during good monsoon years, while the anomalies show an opposite trend during the poor monsoon years. The zonal and meridional propagation of low-frequency oscillations of moisture fields has also been examined. The southward movement of low-frequency oscillations seems to be suppressed in good monsoon years as compared to the poor monsoon years, whereas the northward movement of the same shows no particular difference. Fluctuations in the 30–50 day range are found shifted to longer time-period side in the poor monsoon years.

    • Large scale features and assessment of spatial scale correspondence between TMPA and IMD rainfall datasets over Indian landmass

      R Uma T V Lakshmi Kumar M S Narayanan M Rajeevan Jyoti Bhate K Niranjan Kumar

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      Daily rainfall datasets of 10 years (1998–2007) of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) version 6 and India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded rain gauge have been compared over the Indian landmass, both in large and small spatial scales. On the larger spatial scale, the pattern correlation between the two datasets on daily scales during individual years of the study period is ranging from 0.4 to 0.7. The correlation improved significantly (∼0.9) when the study was confined to specific wet and dry spells each of about 5–8 days. Wavelet analysis of intraseasonal oscillations (ISO) of the southwest monsoon rainfall show the percentage contribution of the major two modes (30–50 days and 10–20 days), to be ranging respectively between ∼30–40% and 5–10% for the various years. Analysis of inter-annual variability shows the satellite data to be underestimating seasonal rainfall by ∼110 mm during southwest monsoon and overestimating by ∼150 mm during northeast monsoon season.

      At high spatio-temporal scales, viz., 1° × 1° grid, TMPA data do not correspond to ground truth. We have proposed here a new analysis procedure to assess the minimum spatial scale at which the two datasets are compatible with each other. This has been done by studying the contribution to total seasonal rainfall from different rainfall rate windows (at 1 mm intervals) on different spatial scales (at daily time scale). The compatibility spatial scale is seen to be beyond 5° × 5° average spatial scale over the Indian landmass. This will help to decide the usability of TMPA products, if averaged at appropriate spatial scales, for specific process studies, e.g., cloud scale, meso scale or synoptic scale.

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