• M R Ramesh Kumar

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Sea surface temperature variability over North Indian Ocean — A study of two contrasting monsoon seasons

      M R Ramesh Kumar S Sathyendranath N K Viswambharan L V Gangadhara Rao

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      Using the satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) data for 1979 (bad monsoon) and 1983 (good monsoon), the SST variability for two contrasting monsoon seasons is studied. The study indicates that large negative anomalies off the Somali and Arabian coasts are associated with good monsoon rainfall over India. The strong monsoonal cooling in these regions can be attributed to strong low level winds and intense upwelling. The reappearance of 27°C isotherm off Somali coast in May/June coincides with the onset of southwest monsoon over India. Further, the influence of zonal anomaly of SST off Somalia Coast (SCZASST) and Central Indian Ocean Zonal Anomaly of SST (CIOZASST) with monsoon rainfall over India is brought out. The former is negatively related to the monsoon rainfall over western and central parts of India, whilst CIOZASST is positively related.

    • Air-sea interaction over the tropical Indian Ocean during several contrasting monsoon seasons

      M R Ramesh Kumar J S Sastry

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      Monthly mean anomaly fields of various parameters like sea surface temperature, air temperature, wind stress, effective radiation at the surface, heat gain over the ocean and the total heat loss between a good and bad monsoon composite and the evaporation rates over the Arabian Sea and southern hemisphere have been studied over the tropical Indian Ocean. The mean rates of evaporation on a seasonal scale over the Arabian Sea during a good and bad monsoon composites were equal (about 2·48 × 1010 tons/day). The evaporation rates over the southern hemisphere were greater during all the months. The mean evaporation rates over the southern hemisphere on a seasonal scale for the good and bad monsoon composites were 4·4 × 1010 and 4·6 × 1010 tons/day respectively. The maximum evaporation rates over the southern hemisphere were observed in August. The anomalies of wind stress, effective radiation at the surface and the heat gain over the ocean also exhibit large variations in August, as compared to other monsoon months.

    • Hydrography of the eastern Arabian Sea during summer monsoon 2002

      D Shankar S S C Shenoi R K Nayak P N Vinayachandran G Nampoothiri A M Almeida G S Michael M R Ramesh Kumar D Sundar O P Sreejith

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      Hydrographic observations in the eastern Arabian Sea (EAS) during summer monsoon 2002 (during the first phase of the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX)) include two approximately fortnight-long CTD time series. A barrier layer was observed occasionally during the two time series. These ephemeral barrier layers were caused byin situ rainfall, and by advection of low-salinity (high-salinity) waters at the surface (below the surface mixed layer). These barrier layers were advected away from the source region by the West India Coastal Current and had no discernible effect on the sea surface temperature. The three high-salinity water masses, the Arabian Sea High Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW), and the Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum also exhibited intermittency: they appeared and disappeared during the time series. The concentration of the ASHSW, PGW, and RSW decreased equatorward, and that of the RSW also decreased offshore. The observations suggest that the RSW is advected equatorward along the continental slope off the Indian west coast.

    • Hydrography and water masses in the southeastern Arabian Sea during March–June 2003

      S S C Shenoi D Shankar G S Michael J Kurian K K Varma M R Ramesh Kumar A M Almeida A S Unnikrishnan W Fernandes N Barreto C Gnanaseelan R Mathew K V Praju V Mahale

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      This paper describes the hydrographic observations in the southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during two cruises carried out in March–June 2003 as part of the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment. The surface hydrography during March–April was dominated by the intrusion of low-salinity waters from the south; during May–June, the low-salinity waters were beginning to be replaced by the highsalinity waters from the north. There was considerable mixing at the bottom of the surface mixed layer, leading to interleaving of low-salinity and high-salinity layers. The flow paths constructed following the spatial patterns of salinity along the sections mimic those inferred from numerical models. Time-series measurements showed the presence of Persian Gulf and Red Sea Waters in the SEAS to be intermittent during both cruises: they appeared and disappeared during both the fortnight-long time series.

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