M Janga Reddy
Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 122 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 253-269
This paper investigates the role of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-based climate variability in modulating multivariate drought risks in the drought-prone region of Western Rajasthan in India. Droughts are multivariate phenomenon, often characterized by severity, duration and peak. By using multivariate ENSO index, annual drought events are partitioned into three climatic states – El Niño, La Niña and neutral phases. For multivariate probabilistic representation of drought characteristics, trivariate copulas are employed, which have the ability to preserve the dependence structure of drought variables under uncertain environment. The first copula model is developed without accounting the climate state information to obtain joint and conditional return periods of drought characteristics. Then, copula-based models are developed for each climate state to estimate the joint and conditional probabilities of drought characteristics under each ENSO state. Results of the study suggest that the inclusion of ENSO-based climate variability is helpful in knowing the associated drought risks, and useful for management of water resources in the region.
Volume 124 Issue 7 October 2015 pp 1517-1529
Digital elevation model (DEM) of a watershed forms key basis for hydrologic modelling and its resolution plays a key role in accurate prediction of various hydrological processes. This study appraises the effect of different DEMs with varied spatial resolutions (namely TOPO 20 m, CARTO 30 m, ASTER 30 m, SRTM 90 m, GEO-AUS 500 m and USGS 1000 m) on hydrological response of watershed using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and applied for a case study of Kaddam watershed in India for estimating runoff and sediment yield. From the results of case study, it was observed that reach lengths, reach slopes, minimum and maximum elevations, sub-watershed areas, land use mapping areas within the sub-watershed and number of HRUs varied substantially due to DEM resolutions, and consequently resulted in a considerable variability in estimated daily runoff and sediment yields. It was also observed that, daily runoff values have increased (decreased) on low (high) rainy days respectively with coarser resolution of DEM. The daily sediment yield values from each sub-watershed decreased with coarser resolution of the DEM. The study found that the performance of SWAT model prediction was not influenced much for finer resolution DEMs up to 90 m for estimation of runoff, but it certainly influenced the estimation of sediment yields. The DEMs of TOPO 20 m and CARTO 30 m provided better estimates of sub-watershed areas, runoff and sediment yield values over other DEMs.