• Kaushik Das

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • 1420 Ma diabasic intrusives from the Mesoproterozoic Singhora Group, Chhattisgarh Supergroup, India: Implications towards non-plume intrusive activity

      Priyabrata Das Kaushik Das Partha Pratim Chakraborty S Balakrishnan

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      Besides offering significant clues towards tracking the geochemical evolution of the mantle and architectural reconstruction of different ‘supercontinent’, geochronological and geochemical appraisal of igneous inputs are also important to bracket the depositional time frame of any lithopackage, particularly, the unfossiliferous sedimentary successions. The present study deals with diabasic intrusive within Mesoproterozoic Saraipalli Formation, which is an argillaceous constituent present at the basal part of nearly 400 m thick four-tiered unmetamorphosed but deformed sedimentary succession of Singhora Group, Chhattisgarh Supergroup, central India. The SE–NW trending intrusive comprises mainly of plagioclase and augite together with minor orthopyroxene, biotite and opaque minerals. Though some plagioclase laths are partially sericitized, the ophitic-to-subophitic texture of the rock is well preserved. Major and trace element geochemical data indicate that this intrusive is basalt-to-basaltic andesite in character and of subalkaline basalt affinity. Multi-element plot shows overall LILE-enrichment and enrichment of Pb and slight depletion of Nb and P, coupled with moderate La/Nb and Th/Nb ratios. Zr, Y and Nb ternary diagrams plot in the fields of within plate basalt. Selected HFSE ratios indicate a non-plume source with crustal assimilation/sediment mixing. Sm–Nd and Rb–Sr isotope data show that the intrusive has Srinitial and Ndinitial of 0.709377–0.706672 and 0.510919–0.510815, respectively. Positive 𝜀tNd [t = 1420 Ma] values (+0.3 to + 2.3) indicate depleted isotopic nature of their protolith. The calculated $T_{DM}$ age is 1.7–1.9 Ga. The mineral-whole rock isochron data (Sm–Nd systematics) of the intrusive implies an emplacement age of ca. 1420 Ma. Considering synchronous terrain boundary shear zone development in Bastar craton on the southeastern part of the Singhora basin, mafic magmatism in Eastern Ghats and large-scale basic intrusion in Sausar mobile belt, a major tectono-thermal event around 1400 Ma is surmised that affected eastern Indian craton. Moreover, geochronology of a bedded porcellanite unit (ca. 1500 Ma) at the base and a discordant basic intrusive (ca. 1420 Ma) allowed a unique opportunity to qualitatively offer an upper bound of time bracket for the deposition of Saraipalli Formation, i.e., ∼80 Ma.

    • Petrotectonic framework of granulites from northern part of Chilka Lake area, Eastern Ghats Belt, India: Compressional vis-à-vis transpressional tectonics

      Kaushik Das Sankar Bose Subrata Karmakar Supriya Chakraborty

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      Granulite-facies rocks occurring north-east of the Chilka Lake anothosite (Balugan Massif) show a complex metamorphic and deformation history. The M1$–$D1 stage is identified only through microscopic study by the presence of S1 internal foliation shown by the M1 assemblage sillimanite–quartz–plagioclase–biotite within garnet porphyroblasts of the aluminous granulites and this fabric is obliterated in outcrop to map-scale by subsequent deformations. S2 fabric was developed at peak metamorphic condition (M2$–$D2­) and is shown by gneissic banding present in all lithological units. S3 fabric was developed due to D3 deformation and it is tectonically transposed parallel to S2 regionally except at the hinge zone of the F3 folds. The transposed S2/S3 fabric is the regional characteristic structure of the area. The D4 event produced open upright F4 folds, but was weak enough to develop any penetrative foliation in the rocks except few spaced cleavages that developed in the quartzite/garnet–sillimanite gneiss. Petrological data suggest that the $M_{4}–D_{4}$ stage actually witnessed reactivation of the lower crust by late distinct tectonothermal event. Presence of transposed $S_{2}/S_{3}$ fabric within the anorthosite arguably suggests that the pluton was emplaced before or during the $M_{3}–D_{3}$ event. Field-based large-scale structural analyses and microfabric analyses of the granulites reveal that this terrain has been evolved through superposed folding events with two broadly perpendicular compression directions without any conclusive evidence for transpressional tectonics as argued by earlier workers. Tectonothermal history of these granulites spanning in Neoproterozoic time period is dominated by compressional tectonics with associated metamorphism at deep crust.

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