• K KUMAR

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Observations on the ichnospecies Monomorphichnus multilineatus from the Nagaur Sandstone (Cambrian Series 2-Stage 4), Marwar Supergroup, India

      Mukund Sharma S K Pandey S Ahmad K Kumar A H Ansari

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      sigmoidal scratches assigned to ichnospecies Monomorphichnus multilineatus from the Nagaur Sandstone belonging to the Cambrian (Series 2-Stage 4). Nagaur M. multilineatus are recorded from the intertidal regime. It is an addition to already known depositional environments for this ichnospecies, which are known from shallow marine, wave-dominated, to non-marine or brackish water and storm-dominated sequences. Classical systematics of M. multilineatus is enriched with additional information in the paper. Its significance has be statistical analyses help reveal its behaviour and feeding pattern of the causative organism of M.multilineatus. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), average linkage and Pearson Correlation were performed to establish the natural grouping and behaviour of the specimens. HCA indicates that the studied Nagaur specimens belong to ichnogenera Monomorphicnus and ichnospecies, i.e., multilineatus.Pearson correlation, involving thickness and length of individual specimen, was positive. It indicates that the amount of food required by individual adult specimen was more and thereby requiring more grazing to provide enough food for survival. All the known occurrences of M. multilineatus are reviewed in the present study for their mode of preservation, depositional environment, palaeoecology and taphonomy.

    • Temperature over the Himalayan foothill state of Uttarakhand: Present and future

      ARKADEB BANERJEE A P DIMRI K KUMAR

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      Uttarakhand, a hill state of India, covers an area of 51,125 km$^{2}$. The geographic position is highly crucial with in the Central Himalayas (CH), for agro-climate, water resource management, food-processing, tourism, etc., having enriched bio-diversity and forest. Present study investigates the spatio-temporal characteristics and distribution of temperature of Uttarakhand state. Observation and model (under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) at radiative forcing 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 W/m$^{2}$) temperature fields are studied to assess the present and future trends. Standard temperature fields from AphroTemp, Climate Research Unit (CRU) and ECMWF Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim) are used. Attempt is to find orographic responses on the surface temperature at seasonal scale. Elevation dependent warming (EDW) is higher at higher elevations as compared to lower elevations. In particular, it reaches to maximum during Indian summer monsoon months (JJAS) as estimated from AphroTemp during 1970–2007. Munsiyari region experiences highest warming rate by 0.038$^{\circ}$C/decade. Elevational temperature trends show higher increase with statistical significance at 99% confidence level from <500 to 3000 m elevation belt during JJAS. For elevation >3000 m, highest warming trend is observed during MAM. Further, temperature trends analysed using one of the regional climate models REMO of the CORDEX-SA suite, depict an increase by 0.019$^{\circ}$C/yr. Future temperature trends under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 show warming trends by 0.008$^{\circ}$, 0.022$^{\circ}$, and 0.064$^{\circ}$C/yr, respectively.

      $\bf{Highlights}$

      $\bullet$ Provide process information on temperature across and along the foothills of Himalayas during climate change

      $\bullet$ Elevation dependent changes in the temperature

      $\bullet$ Orographic interactions.

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