• K K Sharma

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • A second derivative method of resistivity sounding

      Murali Sabnavis K K Sharma

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      The second vertical derivatives of gravity and magnetic potential are widely used in geophysical prospecting because of their better resolution. On the same basis an attempt has been made to obtain the expressions for the second vertical derivative of the electrical potential and to compute its nature for comparison. Derivative responses over a two-layered earth and also over an anticlinal structure have been computed and it is shown that the second vertical derivative sounding could be employed for greater accuracy in finding out the thickness of such beds or the inclination of the sides of the anticline and its depth when compared with normal resistivity sounding

    • Major ion chemistry of the Ganga source waters: Weathering in the high altitude Himalaya

      M M Sarin S Krishnaswami J R Trivedi K K Sharma

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      A systematic study of the major ion chemistry of the Ganga source waters—the Bhagirathi, Alaknanda and their tributaries—has been carried out to assess the chemical weathering processes in the high altitude Himalaya. Among major ions, Ca, Mg, HCO3 and SO4 are the most abundant in these river waters. These results suggest that weathering of carbonate rocks by carbonic and sulphuric acids dominates in these drainage basins. On an average, silicate weathering can contribute up to ∼ 30% of the total cations.

      The concentration of total dissolved salts in the Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda is 104 and 115mg/l, respectively. The chemical denudation rate in the drainage basins of the Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda is, respectively, 110 and 137 tons/km2/yr, significantly higher than that derived for the entire Ganga basin, indicating intense chemical erosion of the Himalaya.

    • Computation of regional gravity anomaly — A novel approach

      K Mallick K K Sharma

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      A new scheme is put forward based on the shape function concept of finite element approximation to compute regional gravity anomaly. The uniqueness of this approach is that excepting eight (or twelve) discrete gravity measurements coinciding with the eight (or twelve) nodes of a quadratic (or cubic) isoparametric element superimposing the map space, often very large, no other observed gravity data are invoked to compute the regional. Tests on two Bouguer gravity fields, an oil prospect and a rift valley confirmed better resolution by this approach. This technique is straight forward, uses simple mathematics to be easily automated and yields repeatable results.

    • Stable isotope systematics of surface water bodies in the Himalayan and Trans-Himalayan (Kashmir) region

      Kanchan Pande J T Padia R Ramesh K K Sharma

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      Stable hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope ratios of the headwaters of the Indus and its tributaries, surface ice in glaciers, saline and fresh water lakes and thermal springs in the Himalayan and Trans-Himalayan (Kashmir) region are reported. The δ5D-δ18 relationship for the river samples shows a slope of 9.12 +-0.29 which agrees well with the estimate of 8.99 ±0.33 based on a simple Rayleigh fractionation model. The unique signature of a higher deuterium excess (d) of the ‘Western Disturbance’ is preserved in these samples. An altitude effect of -0.9 per mil/km is observed in the δ18O of Indus waters. At a lower altitude (Beas) the altitude effect is almost double, indicating that the altitude effect decreases with elevation in this region.

    • Finite element concept to derive isostatic residual maps — Application to gorda plate and Sierra Nevada regions

      K Mallick K K Sharma

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      A new space-domain operator based on the shape function concept of finite element analysis has been developed to derive the residual maps of the Gorda Plate of western United States. The technique does not require explicit assumptions on isostatic models. Besides delineating the Gorda Plate boundary, the residual maps exhibit a close match both in their anomaly patterns and magnitudes with previously computed residual maps based on the theory of isostasy.

    • Mafic rocks from Erinpura gneiss terrane in the Sirohi region: Possible ocean-floor remnants in the foreland of the Delhi Fold Belt, NW India

      M K Pandit H De Wall H Daxberger J Just M Bestmann K K Sharma

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      A small isolated mafic body occurs to the south of Sirohi near village Daba within the Neoproterozoic Erinpura Granite in the southern sector of the Proterozoic Delhi Fold Belt in NW India. This mafic body occurs close to a 100 m wide NE–SW trending shear zone (Daba Shear Zone) which overprints the felsic rock fabrics. Further south, a small mafic body near village Kui was also sampled which forms the southern limit of the Phulad Ophiolite Suite which is a 300 km long major NE–SW trending lineament, described as Western Margin Fault. Some of the lithological components of the Daba mafic body show locally preserved magmatic fabric but completely transformed mineralogies under lower amphibolites facies metamorphic conditions where two-stage deformation has been inferred. Magnetic fabric analysis underlines a general correspondence of structural elements in both felsic and mafic lithologies. Binary correlations of Zr with other high field strength elements underline fractionation as the main process in the evolution of Daba and Kui rocks. Geochemical characteristics indicate subalkaline tholeiitic basalt affinity for these mafic rocks. The trace element characteristics, such as enriched LIL elements, high Th, absence of negative Nb anomalies and depletion in compatible elements in Daba samples suggest an enriched mantle source and lower degree of melting. The trace and rare earth element characteristics for Kui (Th anomaly, Nb–Ta trough and less spiked patterns, flat REE trends) indicate derivation from a refractory mantle source affected by fluids derived from subduction. Distinct differences in trace and REE characteristics between Daba and Kui can be interpreted in terms of different stages of ophiolite development.

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