• J N Pattan

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Geochemistry of bauxites of Belgaum (Karnataka) and Yercaud (Tamil Nadu) areas

      J N Pattan S M Appangoudar

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      The major chemical components of bauxite deposits of Belgaum (76° 24′E : 15° 54′N) and Yercaud (78° 14′E : 11° 48′N) areas have been determined. A chemical continuity between parent rocks (zone I) to bauxites (zone IV) via clay (zone II) and laterites (zone III) clearly indicates that bauxites have been derived byin situ weathering of the respective parent rocks.

    • Rare earth element studies of surficial sediments from the southwestern Carlsberg Ridge, Indian Ocean

      J N Pattan N C Higgs

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      The rare earth element (REE) contents of sixteen surficial calcareous sediments from the southwestern Carlsberg Ridge, Indian Ocean, have been determined. The total REE vary from 35 ppm to 126 ppm and are inversely related to the calcium carbonate content. REEs show a strong positive correlation with Al + Fe + K + Mg + Na (r2= 0.98) and Mn + Fe + Cu + Ni (r2= 0.86) suggesting that the REE is associated with a combined phase of clays (mainly illite) and Mn-Fe oxyhydroxides. The aeolian input into these sediments is suggested from the weak positive Eu/Eu* anomaly. Shale-normalized (NASC) pattern along with La(n)/Yb(n) ratio suggest enrichment of heavy REE (HREE) relative to the light REE (LREE) with a negative Ce/Ce* anomaly implying retention of a bottom water REE pattern.

    • Biological productivity, terrigenous influence and noncrustal elements supply to the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Paleoceanography during the past ∼ 1 Ma

      J N Pattan Toshiyuki Masuzawa D V Borole G Parthiban Pratima Jauhari Mineko Yamamoto

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      A 2m-long sediment core from the siliceous ooze domain in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB; 13‡03′S: 74‡44′E; water depth 5099m) is studied for calcium carbonate, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, biogenic opal, major and few trace elements (Al, Ti, Fe, K, Mg, Zr, Sc,V, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, and Ba) to understand the productivity and intensity of terrigenous supply. The age model of the sediment core is based on U-Th dating, occurrence of Youngest Toba Tuff of ∼ 74 ka and Australasian microtektites of ∼ 770 ka.

      Low carbonate content (< 1%) of sediment core indicates deposition below the carbonate compensation depth. Organic carbon content is also very low, almost uniform (mean 0.2 wt%) and is of marine origin. This suggests a well-oxygenated bottom water environment during the past ∼ 1100ka. Our data suggest that during ∼ 1100 ka and ∼ 400 ka siliceous productivity was lower, complimented by higher supply of terrigenous material mostly derived from the metasedimentary rocks of High Himalayan crystalline. However, during the last ∼ 400 ka, siliceous productivity increased with substantial reduction in the terrigenous sediment supply. The results suggest that intensity of Himalayan weathering, erosion associated with monsoons was comparatively higher prior to 400 ka. Manganese, Ba, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Co have around 90% of their supply from noncrustal (excess) source and their burial to seafloor remained unaffected throughout the past ∼ 1100 ka.

    • Relationship between chemical composition and magnetic susceptibility in sediment cores from Central Indian Ocean Basin

      J N Pattan G Parthiban V K Banakar A Tomer M Kulkarni

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      Three sediment cores in a north–south transect (3°N to 13°S) from different sediment types of the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) are studied to understand the possible relationship between magnetic susceptibility (𝜒) and Al, Fe, Ti and Mn concentrations. The calcareous ooze core exhibit lowest 𝜒 (12.32 × 10-7m3 kg−1), Al (2.84%), Fe (1.63%) and Ti (0.14%), terrigenous clay core with moderate 𝜒 (29.9 × 10-7 m3 kg−1) but highest Al (6.84%), Fe (5.20%) and Ti (0.44%), and siliceous ooze core with highest 𝜒 (38.06 × 10-7 m3 kg−1) but moderate Al (4.49%), Fe (2.80%) and Ti (0.19%) contents. The distribution of 𝜒 and detrital proxy elements (Al, Fe, and Ti) are identical in both calcareous and siliceous ooze. Interestingly, in terrigenous core, the behaviour of 𝜒 is identical to only Ti content but not with Al and Fe suggesting possibility of Al and Fe having a non-detrital source.

      The occurrence of phillipsite in terrigenous clay is evident by the Al-K scatter plot where trend line intersects K axis at more than 50% of total K suggesting excess K in the form of phillipsite. Therefore, the presence of phillipsite might be responsible for negative correlation between 𝜒 and Al (𝑟 = −0.52). In siliceous ooze the strong positive correlations among 𝜒, Alexc and Feexc suggest the presence of authigenic Fe-rich smectite. High Mn content (0.5%) probably in the form of manganese micronodules is also contributing to 𝜒 in both calcareous and siliceous ooze but not in the terrigenous core where mean Mn content (0.1%) is similar to crustal abundance. Thus, 𝜒 systematically records the terrigenous variation in both the biogenic sediments but in terrigenous clay it indirectly suggests the presence of authigenic minerals.

    • Shift in detrital sedimentation in the eastern Bay of Bengal during the late Quaternary

      C Prakash Babu J N Pattan K Dutta N Basavaiah G V Ravi Prasad D K Ray P Govil

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      Down-core variations of granulometric, geochemical and mineral magnetism of a 70-cm long sediment core retrieved from the eastern Bay of Bengal abyssal region were studied to understand sedimentation pattern and sediment provenance during the last ∼12 kyr BP. Based on down-core physical and elemental variations, three units were identified: unit 3 (70–43 cm) is a ∼30 cm thick clayey silt organic carbon-rich (0.5–0.92%) turbidite probably delivered by the Brahmaputra River during the late Quaternary period. Units 2 (43–24 cm) and 1 (24–0 cm) represent enhanced and reduced supply of coarse-grained detrital sediments from the Ganges River during early and late Holocene period, respectively. Increased terrigenous supply dilutes calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and biogenic elements (P, Ba and Cu) in units 3 and 2. On the contrary, a reduction in detrital input enhances CaCO3 and biogenic elements in unit 1. Lithogenic elements (Ti, Al, K and Rb) and shale-normalized REE patterns in all three units suggest terrigenous source. The shift in provenance from the Brahmaputra to the Ganges derived sediments is evident by a sharp increase in sediment grain size, increased concentration and grain size assemblages of magnetic minerals, lithogenic elements concentration and $La_{n}/Yb_{n}$ ratio. This study highlights terrigenous dilution on biogenic sedimentation in the eastern Bay of Bengal sediments.

    • Correlation of the oldest Toba Tuff to sediments in the central Indian Ocean Basin

      J N Pattan M Shyam Prasad E V S S K Babu

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      We have identified an ash layer in association with Australasian microtektites of ∼0.77Ma old in two sediment cores which are ∼450 km apart in the central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). Morphology and chemical composition of glass shards and associated microtektites have been used to trace their provenance. In ODP site 758 from Ninetyeast Ridge, ash layer-D (13 cm thick, 0.73–0.75 Ma) and layer-E (5 cm thick, 0.77–0.78 Ma) were previously correlated to the oldest Toba Tuff (OTT) eruptions of the Toba caldera, Sumatra. In this investigation, we found tephra ∼3100 km to the southwest of Toba caldera that is chemically identical to layer D of ODP site 758 and ash in the South China Sea correlated to the OTT. Layer E is not present in the CIOB or other ocean basins. The occurrence of tephra correlating to layer D suggests a widespread distribution of OTT tephra (∼3.6 × 107 km2), an ash volume of at least ∼1800 km3, a total OTT volume of 2300 km3, and classification of the OTT eruption as a super-eruption.

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