• Gh Jeelani

Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

• Assessing variability of water quality in a groundwater-fed perennial lake of Kashmir Himalayas using linear geostatics

This paper presents a study on Manasbal lake, which is one of the high altitude lakes in the KashmirValley, India. Eighteen water samples were analysed for major ions and trace elements to assess the variability of water quality of the lake for various purposes. Geostatistics, the theory of regionalized variables, was then used to enhance the dataset and estimate some missing spatial values. Resultsindicated that the concentration of major ions in the water samples in winter was higher than in summer. The scatter diagrams suggested the dominance of alkaline earths over the alkali elements. Three types of water were identified in the lake that are referred to as Ca–HCO3, Mg–HCO3 and hybrid types. The lake water was found to be controlled by rock–water interaction with carbonate lithology as a dominant source of the solutes. The major (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NO3 and HCO$^{−}_{3}$, CO3 and Cl) and trace elements of the lake water were within the World Health Organization standards, therefore the lake water was considered chemically safe for drinking purposes. Although NO3 concentration (ranging from 1.72 to 2 mg/L), is within the permissible limit and not very alarming, the gradually increasing trend is not acceptable. It is however, important to guard its spatio-temporal variability as the water is used for domestic as well as agricultural purposes. This study is significant as hydrogeological information on such high altitude lakes in India is scanty.

• Geochemical characterization of surface water and spring water in SE Kashmir Valley, western Himalaya: Implications to water–rock interaction

Water samples from precipitation, glacier melt, snow melt, glacial lake, streams and karst springs were collected across SE of Kashmir Valley, to understand the hydrogeochemical processes governing the evolution of the water in a natural and non-industrial area of western Himalayas. The time series data on solute chemistry suggest that the hydrochemical processes controlling the chemistry of spring waters is more complex than the surface water. This is attributed to more time available for infiltrating water to interact with the diverse host lithology. Total dissolved solids (TDS), in general, increases with decrease in altitude. However, high TDS of some streams at higher altitudes and low TDS of some springs at lower altitudes indicated contribution of high TDS waters from glacial lakes and low TDS waters from streams, respectively. The results show that some karst springs are recharged by surface water; Achabalnag by the Bringi stream and Andernag and Martandnag by the Liddar stream. Calcite dissolution, dedolomitization and silicate weathering were found to be the main processes controlling the chemistry of the spring waters and calcite dissolution as the dominant process in controlling the chemistry of the surface waters. The spring waters were undersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite in most of the seasons except in November, which is attributed to the replenishment of the CO2 by recharging waters during most of the seasons.

• Delineation of the recharge areas and distinguishing the sources of karst springs in Bringi watershed, Kashmir Himalayas using hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes

Water samples were collected from precipitation, streams and karst springs of the mountainous Bringi catchment of Kashmir Himalayas for major ions, stable isotopes (𝛿18O and 𝛿D) and 3H analysis. The main objective is to identify the potential recharge area for karst springs. The water in the Triassic limestone aquifer of the Bringi watershed is characterized by low levels of mineralization with TDS of the spring water samples ranging between 99 and 222 mg/l except the Kongamnag spring, which contained TDS up to 425 mg/l. As expected in an area with dominant carbonate lithology, Ca–HCO3 and Ca–Mg–HCO3 hydrochemical facies were found. Based on the amount weighed monthly averages (𝑛 = 6), the local meteoric water line (LMWL) for Bringi watershed is 𝛿D = 7.7 ×𝛿18O + 11.1 (𝑟2 = 0.99). The isotopic signature of winter precipitation is reflected in stream and spring water in late spring and is therefore, a representative of snow melting. The spring waters in September bear the 𝛿2H and 𝛿18O enriched isotopic signatures of summer rainfall. With the help of the local vertical isotopic gradient of precipitation (𝛿18O = −0.27‰ per 100 m increase in elevation), the mean elevation of precipitation that recharged the aquifer is estimated and ranges about 2500–2900 m amsl. There is a very strong correlation (𝑟2 = 0.97) between the seasonal isotope composition of streams and springs, indicating that streams and springs either share similar catchments or the springs are recharged by the streams.

• Quantification of groundwater–surface water interactions using environmental isotopes: A case study of Bringi Watershed, Kashmir Himalayas, India

Environmental isotopes including $\delta^{18}$O, $\delta^{2}$H and $^3$H of precipitation, streams and springs were determined in the mountainous Bringi catchment of Kashmir Himalaya, dominated by carbonate lithology. The isotopic signature of winter precipitation is reflected in stream and spring water in late spring and is, therefore, representative of snow melting. The spring waters in September bear the enriched isotopic signatures of summer rainfall. The strong correlation $(r^2 = 0.97)$ between the isotopic composition of streams and springs indicates the streams and springs either share similar catchments or the springs are recharged by the streams. Chloride mass balance and isotopic mass balance studies suggest that the surface recharge component averages 337.35 m$^3$/s, which is about 75% of total stream discharge during the high flow period. Similarly, the contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge during the low flow period averages 7.5m$^3$/s, which is about 18.6% of total stream flow. Furthermore, the mean residence time of the springs calculated from the tritium decay equation is very short (<1 year). The residence time is longer for Kongamnag and short for Achabalnag, which is further supported by dye testing.

• # Journal of Earth System Science

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Volume 128 | Issue 8
December 2019

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