Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 122 Issue 5 October 2013 pp 1207-1217
Today with increased availability of data of middle atmospheric winds and temperature, modelling of middle atmospheric tides has acquired greater importance. The theory of atmospheric tides has two main parts: (i) Investigation of the sources of periodic excitation, and (ii) calculation of the atmospheric response to the excitation. Other than stratospheric ozone and tropospheric water vapour absorption, the thermal energy available from the absorption in Schumann–Runge (SR) continuum leading to photodissociation of O2 is important energy source for tides in the lower thermosphere. PHODIS radiative transfer model is capable of providing tidal forcing due to combined effect of solar and chemical heating in the wavelength region 116 to 850 nm. In this paper, we present an atmospheric tidal model based on classical tidal theory and the prime objective is to obtain the tidal structure due to conventional ozone and water vapour heating in conjunction with the O2 absorption. Mean wind and dissipation mechanisms are not considered. The present tidal model reveals that the diurnal amplitude peaks in mid to low latitudes, whereas semidiurnal component is stronger at higher latitudes. The semidiurnal tide is about an order of magnitude weaker than the diurnal tide. Also, semidiurnal wave has longer vertical wavelength than diurnal tide. The results of present model are qualitatively in good agreement with the other tidal models, which utilize more sophisticated parameterization. Thus, the salient features of the tidal structure are obtained using basic computations without considering the effects of background winds and dissipation processes. Further refinements to the model can serve as an inexpensive substitute to the presently available tidal models.
Volume 123 Issue 3 April 2014 pp 593-602
Cosmic noise absorption (CNA) measurred by imaging riometer, is an excellent tool to passively study the high latitude D-region ionospheric conditions and dynamics. An imaging riometer has been installed at Indian Antarctic station Maitri (geographic 70.75°S, 11.75°E; corrected geomagnetic 63.11°S, 53.59°E) in February 2010. This is the first paper using the imaging riometer data from Maitri. The present paper introduces the details of this facility, including its instrumentation, related CNA theory and its applications. Sidereal shift of around 2 hours in the diurnal pattern validates the data obtained from the newly installed instrument. Moreover, the strength of cosmic noise signal on quiet days also varies with months. This is apparently due to solar ionization of D-region ionosphere causing enhanced electron density where collision frequency is already high. The main objective of installing the imaging riometer at Maitri is to study magneotspheric–ionospheric coupling during substorm processes. In the current study, we present two typical examples of disturbed time CNA associated with storm-time and non-storm time substorm. Results reveal that CNA is more pronounced during storm-time substorm as compared to nonstorm-time substorm. The level of CNA strongly depends upon the strengthening of convectional electric field and the duration of southward turning of interplanetary magnetic field before the substorm onset.